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Manual Muscle Testing for Post-Stroke Upper Extremity Assessment
The Manual Muscle Testing (MMT) scoring system is an assessment tool used by rehabilitation physicians or physiatrists, physiotherapists, neurologists, and other clinicians who deal with the individuals’ functional status. The most frequently used approach is the use of MMT to assess the grade of muscle weakness in different pathologies.
16 Jun 2022
G Protein-Coupled Receptors
GPCRs arguably represent the most effective current therapeutic targets for a plethora of diseases. GPCRs also possess a pivotal role in the regulation of the physiological balance between healthy and pathological conditions; thus, their importance in systems biology cannot be underestimated. The molecular diversity of GPCR signaling systems is likely to be closely associated with disease-associated changes in organismal tissue complexity and compartmentalization, thus enabling a nuanced GPCR-based capacity to interdict multiple disease pathomechanisms at a systemic level. GPCRs have been long considered as controllers of communication between tissues and cells. This communication involves the ligand-mediated control of cell surface receptors that then direct their stimuli to impact cell physiology.
28 Feb 2022
Chitosan-Based Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery
Nanoparticles (NPs) have an outstanding position in pharmaceutical, biological, and medical disciplines. Polymeric NPs based on chitosan (CS) can act as excellent drug carriers because of some intrinsic beneficial properties including biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-toxicity, bioactivity, easy preparation, and targeting specificity. Drug transport and release from CS-based particulate systems depend on the extent of cross-linking, morphology, size, and density of the particulate system, as well as physicochemical properties of the drug. All these aspects have to be considered when developing new CS-based NPs as potential drug delivery systems. This review is summarizing and discussing recent advances in CS-based NPs being developed and examined for drug delivery including the following sections: (i) CS and its derivatives, basic characteristics of CS NPs, (ii) preparation procedures used for CS NPs, (iii) CS-based-nanocomposites with organic polymers and inorganic material, and (iv) implementations of CS NPs and nanocomposites in drug delivery.
18 Oct 2021
History and Development of Nanomaterial Research
Scientists think that nanoparticles and nanostructured materials originated during the Big Bang process from meteorites leading to the formation of the universe and Earth. Since 1990, the term nanotechnology became very popular due to advances in imaging technologies that paved the way to specific industrial applications.
09 Feb 2022
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a crystalline, weakly basic, colorless organic substance and is one of the most potent marine toxins known. Although TTX was first isolated from pufferfish, it has been found in numerous other marine organisms and a few terrestrial species.
17 Jan 2022
L-Carnitine in Mitochondria
Mitochondria control cellular fate by various mechanisms and are key drivers of cellular metabolism. Although the main function of mitochondria is energy production, they are also involved in cellular detoxification, cellular stabilization, as well as control of ketogenesis and glucogenesis. Conditions like neurodegenerative disease, insulin resistance, endocrine imbalances, liver and kidney disease are intimately linked to metabolic disorders or inflexibility and to mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial dysfunction due to a relative lack of micronutrients and substrates is implicated in the development of many chronic diseases. l-carnitine is a vital molecule that is found in all living cells. It is a quaternary amine (3-hydroxy-4-N-trimethylaminobutyrate) whose main function in mammalian cells is the transfer of long chain fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane for β- oxidation and generation of ATP energy.
11 Mar 2022
Application of Ketamine in Depression in Alzheimer’s Disease
Depression is a leading cause of disability globally, with a prevalence of 3.8% among the whole population, 5% of the adult population, and 5.7% of the elderly population over 60 years of age. There is evidence that depression is linked to certain neurodegenerative diseases, one being Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The efficacy of conventional antidepressants to treat depression in AD is conflicting, especially regarding selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). However, ketamine, a nonselective N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, can mediate a wide range of pharmacological effects, including neuroprotection, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties, multimodal analgesia, and treatment of depression, suicidal attempts, and status epilepticus. Recent clinical findings suggest that ketamine may provide neuroprotection and reduce neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with AD.
31 Mar 2022
Mercury Toxicity and Detection
Mercury (Hg), this non-essential heavy metal released from both industrial and natural sources entered into living bodies, and cause grievous detrimental effects to the human health and ecosystem.
22 Mar 2021
Structure-Based Approach in Drug Design
Structure-based drug design (SBDD) is the computational approach that relies on knowledge of 3D structures of the biological targets to identify or design the potential chemical structure suitable for clinical tests. With the explosion of genomic, functional, and structural information in recent decades, the majority of biological targets with 3D structure have been identified and stimulated the applications of structure-based approaches in the current design pipeline. SBDD is popular for virtual screening to filter the drug-like compounds from a large library of small molecules, including widely applied approaches, such as docking and structure-based pharmacophore design.
24 Jan 2022
3D-Bioprinting for Chronic Wound
Skin substitutes can provide a temporary or permanent treatment option for chronic wounds. The selection of skin substitutes depends on several factors, including the type of wound and its severity. Full-thickness skin grafts (SGs) require a well-vascularised bed and sometimes will lead to contraction and scarring formation. Besides, donor sites for full-thickness skin grafts are very limited if the wound area is big, and it has been proven to have the lowest survival rate compared to thick- and thin-split thickness. Tissue engineering technology has introduced new advanced strategies since the last decades to fabricate the composite scaffold via the 3D-bioprinting approach as a tissue replacement strategy. Considering the current global donor shortage for autologous split-thickness skin graft (ASSG), skin 3D-bioprinting has emerged as a potential alternative to replace the ASSG treatment. The three-dimensional (3D)-bioprinting technique yields scaffold fabrication with the combination of biomaterials and cells to form bioinks.
08 Jan 2022
Featured Entry Collections
Encyclopedia of Social Sciences
Encyclopedia of ZEMCH Research and Development
Encyclopedia of Engineering
Encyclopedia of Piezoelectrics
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