Topic Review
Golgi apparatus and Huntington’s Disease
Huntington’s disease (HD) is caused by expansion of polyglutamine repeats in the protein huntingtin, which affects the corpus striatum of the brain. The polyglutamine repeats in mutant huntingtin cause its aggregation and elicit toxicity by affecting several cellular processes, which include dysregulated organellar stress responses. The Golgi apparatus not only plays key roles in the transport, processing, and targeting of proteins, but also functions as a sensor of stress, signaling through the Golgi stress response. Unlike the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, the Golgi stress response is relatively unexplored. We have identified a Golgi stress response pathway which is dysregulated in HD.
  • 382
  • 08 Oct 2021
Topic Review Video
Nutritional Interventions
The importance of nutrition in human health is becoming increasingly clear. Despite the growing number of publications in this field, the quality of evidence supporting most nutritional recommendations is classified as "low". To improve the quality of evidence to support nutritional recommendations, the quality of research in this field must be improved. Randomized clinical trials (RCT) are a design that can help to provide high-quality evidence; however, conducting a RCT based on a nutritional intervention can be difficult due to the heterogeneous nature of the intervention and the number of variables that must be considered. Following a review of methodological and ethical standards, as well as four extensions of the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) guidelines applicable to nutritional interventions, a series of definitions, examples, diagrams, and algorithms of key aspects that should be considered when conducting a RCT based on a nutritional intervention were identified.
  • 352
  • 17 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Manual Muscle Testing for Post-Stroke Upper Extremity Assessment
The Manual Muscle Testing (MMT) scoring system is an assessment tool used by rehabilitation physicians or physiatrists, physiotherapists, neurologists, and other clinicians who deal with the individuals’ functional status. The most frequently used approach is the use of MMT to assess the grade of muscle weakness in different pathologies.
  • 343
  • 16 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Mercury Toxicity and Detection
Mercury (Hg), this non-essential heavy metal released from both industrial and natural sources entered into living bodies, and cause grievous detrimental effects to the human health and ecosystem. 
  • 293
  • 22 Mar 2021
Topic Review
Skeletal Muscle Uncoupling Proteins in Obesity Mice Models
Obesity and accompanying type 2 diabetes are among major and increasing worldwide problems that occur fundamentally due to excessive energy intake during its expenditure. Endotherms continuously consume a certain amount of energy to maintain core body temperature via thermogenic processes, mainly in brown adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle glucose utilization and heat production are significant and directly linked to body glucose homeostasis at rest, and especially during physical activity. However, this glucose balance is impaired in diabetic and obese states in humans and mice, and manifests as glucose resistance and altered muscle cell metabolism. Uncoupling proteins have a significant role in converting electrochemical energy into thermal energy without ATP generation. Different homologs of uncoupling proteins were identified, and their roles were linked to antioxidative activity and boosting glucose and lipid metabolism. From this perspective, uncoupling proteins were studied in correlation to the pathogenesis of diabetes and obesity and their possible treatments. Mice were extensively used as model organisms to study the physiology and pathophysiology of energy homeostasis. However, researchers should be aware of interstrain differences in mice models of obesity regarding thermogenesis and insulin resistance in skeletal muscles. 
  • 286
  • 05 May 2022
Topic Review
Influenza Hemagglutinin Vaccines
Hemagglutinin (HA) is the predominant antigenic protein of influenza viruses and antibodies directed at HA are correlated with protection against influenza virus infection
  • 266
  • 12 May 2021
Topic Review
Erythrocytes for Targeted Drug Delivery
Erythrocytes (red blood cells, RBCs) are the largest population of blood cells in mammals. Their main function is oxygen transfer to cells and body tissues. The lifetime of erythrocytes in the bloodstream is 100–120 days, after which they are removed by the spleen. Due to the unique biophysical properties RBCs can be used as drug carriers in two different ways: by incorporating the drug into the cells or by binding it (using non-specific adsorption or a specific association, involving antibodies or various chemical cross-linking compounds) on the RBCs’ surface. Erythrocytes can act as carriers that prolong the drug’s action due to its gradual release from the carrier; as bioreactors with encapsulated enzymes performing the necessary reactions, while remaining inaccessible to the immune system and plasma proteases; or as a tool for targeted drug delivery to target organs, primarily to cells of the reticuloendothelial system, liver and spleen. To date, erythrocytes have been studied as carriers for a wide range of drugs, such as enzymes, antibiotics, anti-inflammatory, antiviral drugs, etc., and for diagnostic purposes. 
  • 256
  • 22 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Formyl-Peptide Receptors
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the most important regulators of cardiac function and are commonly targeted for medical therapeutics. Formyl-Peptide Receptors (FPRs) belong to the GPCR superfamily and include three members (FPR1, FPR2 and FPR3). FPRs are functionally expressed in several cells and tissues where they can significantly contribute to inflammatory disorders, cancer, infections and cardiovascular pathologies. FPRs stimulation induces phosphorylation of several signaling proteins modulating different cellular functions such as cell growth, proliferation, intracellular communication, migration, differentiation, apoptosis, and survival. FPRs can also modulate oxidative stress through nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production whose dysregulation has been observed in different cardiovascular diseases.
  • 242
  • 25 Mar 2021
Topic Review
Tetrodotoxin
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a crystalline, weakly basic, colorless organic substance and is one of the most potent marine toxins known. Although TTX was first isolated from pufferfish, it has been found in numerous other marine organisms and a few terrestrial species. 
  • 238
  • 17 Jan 2022
Topic Review
3D-Bioprinting for Chronic Wound
Skin substitutes can provide a temporary or permanent treatment option for chronic wounds. The selection of skin substitutes depends on several factors, including the type of wound and its severity. Full-thickness skin grafts (SGs) require a well-vascularised bed and sometimes will lead to contraction and scarring formation. Besides, donor sites for full-thickness skin grafts are very limited if the wound area is big, and it has been proven to have the lowest survival rate compared to thick- and thin-split thickness. Tissue engineering technology has introduced new advanced strategies since the last decades to fabricate the composite scaffold via the 3D-bioprinting approach as a tissue replacement strategy. Considering the current global donor shortage for autologous split-thickness skin graft (ASSG), skin 3D-bioprinting has emerged as a potential alternative to replace the ASSG treatment. The three-dimensional (3D)-bioprinting technique yields scaffold fabrication with the combination of biomaterials and cells to form bioinks. 
  • 230
  • 08 Jan 2022
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