Topic Review
Patients with Acute Pulmonary Embolism
Pulmonary thromboembolism is a very common cardiovascular disease, with a high mortality rate. This disease still represents a great challenge both in diagnosis and treatment. The heterogeneous clinical picture, often without pathognomonic signs and symptoms, represents a huge differential diagnostic problem even for experienced doctors. The decisions surrounding this therapeutic regimen also represent a major dilemma in the group of patients who are hemodynamically stable at initial presentation and have signs of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction proven by echocardiography and positive biomarker values (pulmonary embolism of intermediate–high risk).
  • 23
  • 02 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Acyldepsipeptide Analogues for Tuberculosis Treatment
Acyldepsipeptides (ADEPs) are a new class of emerging antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are currently explored for treatment of pathogenic infections, including tuberculosis (TB). These cyclic hydrophobic peptides have a unique bacterial target to the conventional anti-TB drugs, and present a therapeutic window to overcome Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (M. tb) drug resistance. ADEPs exerts their antibacterial activity on M. tb strains through activation of the protein homeostatic regulatory protease, the caseinolytic protease (ClpP1P2). ClpP1P2 is normally regulated and activated by the ClpP-ATPases to degrade misfolded and toxic peptides and/or short proteins. ADEPs bind and dysregulate all the homeostatic capabilities of ClpP1P2 while inducing non-selective proteolysis. The uncontrolled proteolysis leads to M. tb cell death within the host. ADEPs analogues that have been tested possess cytotoxicity and poor pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties
  • 24
  • 30 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Coherence Therapy
Coherence therapy is a system of psychotherapy based in the theory that symptoms of mood, thought and behavior are produced coherently according to the person's current mental models of reality, most of which are implicit and unconscious. It was founded by Bruce Ecker and Laurel Hulley in the 1990s. It has been considered among the most well respected postmodern/constructivist therapies.
  • 12
  • 29 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Psychodynamic Psychotherapy
Psychodynamic psychotherapy or psychoanalytic psychotherapy is a form of depth psychology, the primary focus of which is to reveal the unconscious content of a client's psyche in an effort to alleviate psychic tension. It evolved from and largely replaced psychoanalysis in the mid-20th century. Psychodynamic psychotherapy relies on the interpersonal relationship between client and therapist more than other forms of depth psychology. In terms of approach, this form of therapy uses psychoanalysis adapted to a less intensive style of working, usually at a frequency of once or twice per week. Principal theorists drawn upon are Freud, Klein, and theorists of the object relations movement, e.g., Winnicott, Guntrip, and Bion. Some psychodynamic therapists also draw on Jung or Lacan or Langs. It is a focus that has been used in individual psychotherapy, group psychotherapy, family therapy, and to understand and work with institutional and organizational contexts. In psychiatry, it is has been used for adjustment disorders, as well as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) but more often for personality-related disorders.
  • 1
  • 29 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin. Common symptoms include increased thirst, frequent urination, and unexplained weight loss. Symptoms may also include increased hunger, feeling tired, and sores that do not heal. Often symptoms come on slowly. Long-term complications from high blood sugar include heart disease, strokes, diabetic retinopathy which can result in blindness, kidney failure, and poor blood flow in the limbs which may lead to amputations. The sudden onset of hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state may occur; however, ketoacidosis is uncommon. Type 2 diabetes primarily occurs as a result of obesity and lack of exercise. Some people are more genetically at risk than others. Type 2 diabetes makes up about 90% of cases of diabetes, with the other 10% due primarily to diabetes mellitus type 1 and gestational diabetes. In diabetes mellitus type 1 there is a lower total level of insulin to control blood glucose, due to an autoimmune induced loss of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. Diagnosis of diabetes is by blood tests such as fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, or glycated hemoglobin (A1C). Type 2 diabetes is partly preventable by staying a normal weight, exercising regularly, and eating properly. Treatment involves exercise and dietary changes. If blood sugar levels are not adequately lowered, the medication metformin is typically recommended. Many people may eventually also require insulin injections. In those on insulin, routinely checking blood sugar levels is advised; however, this may not be needed in those taking pills. Bariatric surgery often improves diabetes in those who are obese. Rates of type 2 diabetes have increased markedly since 1960 in parallel with obesity. As of 2015 there were approximately 392 million people diagnosed with the disease compared to around 30 million in 1985. Typically it begins in middle or older age, although rates of type 2 diabetes are increasing in young people. Type 2 diabetes is associated with a ten-year-shorter life expectancy. Diabetes was one of the first diseases described. The importance of insulin in the disease was determined in the 1920s.
  • 9
  • 28 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Writing Therapy
Writing therapy is a form of expressive therapy that uses the act of writing and processing the written word as therapy. Writing therapy posits that writing one's feelings gradually eases feelings of emotional trauma. Writing therapeutically can take place individually or in a group and it can be administered in person with a therapist or remotely through mailing or the Internet. The field of writing therapy includes many practitioners in a variety of settings. The therapy is usually administered by a therapist or counselor. Several interventions exist online. Writing group leaders also work in hospitals with patients dealing with mental and physical illnesses. In university departments they aid student self-awareness and self-development. When administered at a distance, it is useful for those who prefer to remain personally anonymous and are not ready to disclose their most private thoughts and anxieties in a face-to-face situation. As with most forms of therapy, writing therapy is adapted and used to work with a wide range of psychoneurotic issues, including bereavement, desertion and abuse. Many of these interventions take the form of classes where clients write on specific themes chosen by their therapist or counsellor. Assignments may include writing unsent letters to selected individuals, alive or dead, followed by imagined replies from the recipient, or a dialogue with the recovering alcoholic's bottle of alcohol.
  • 3
  • 28 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Tolerogenic Vaccines to Induce Antigen-Specific Tolerance
Conventional therapies for immune-mediated diseases, including autoimmune disorders, transplant reactions, and allergies, have undergone a radical evolution in the last few decades; however, they are still not specific enough to avoid widespread immunosuppression. The idea that vaccine usage could be extended beyond its traditional immunogenic function by encompassing the ability of vaccines to induce antigen-specific tolerance may revolutionize preventive and therapeutic strategies in several clinical fields that deal with immune-mediated disorders. 
  • 63
  • 22 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Pathophysiology of Septic Cardiomyopathy
Septic cardiomyopathy may be broadly defined as an acute cardiac dysfunction unrelated to ischemia that manifests in different ways: arrhythmias, left and/or right ventricular impairment during systole or diastole, with or without reduction in cardiac output. Endothelial, metabolic, and immune response abnormalities are generally involved in the pathogenesis of ventricular dysfunction and arrhythmias during sepsis, whereas the potential role of myocardial ischemia seems limited. Impaired blood flow autoregulation in coronary microcirculation and altered metabolism of lactate, free fatty acid, and glucose likely play a leading role. 
  • 41
  • 14 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Biosensor-Integrated Drug Delivery Systems in Diabetes
One of the most recognized diseases worldwide is diabetes. There are currently almost half a billion individuals globally with this disease and this is expected to crest three quarters of a billion by the end of the decade. Traditionally, diabetes is broken into three categories: Type 1 (previously referred to as juvenile); Type 2 (occasion defined as adult onset), and gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes occurs in ~2–10% of pregnant women with roughly 50% of these cases leading to the mother developing T2D after giving birth. Generally, 5–10% of cases of diabetes are of the T1D form with the remaining 90–95% having T2D. The need to monitor blood glucose, whether for T1D or T2D, is vital for the health and welfare of those afflicted with these diseases. Equally, if not more important, is the need to administer the necessary drug once the knowledge of one’s blood glucose is determined. It is this key second part that has led to significant efforts and ultimate successes in bringing closed-loop systems for diabetes management to market.
  • 46
  • 08 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Gut–Lung Axis Communication in COVID-19
The ecosystem of the human gastrointestinal tract, named gut microbiota, represents the most thoroughly mapped ecosystem. Perturbations on bacterial populations cause dysbiosis, a condition correlated to a wide range of autoimmune, neurological, metabolic, cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases. The lungs have their flora, which are directly related to the gut flora via bidirectional communication allowing the transport of microbial metabolites and toxins produced by intestinal bacteria through the circulation and lymphatic system. This mutual microbial cross-talk communication called the gut–lung axis modulates the immune and inflammatory response to infections. COVID-19 causes dysbiosis, altered intestinal permeability, and bacterial translocation. Dysbiosis, through the gut–lung axis, promotes hyper-inflammation, exacerbates lung damage, and worsens clinical outcomes.
  • 300
  • 08 Sep 2022
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