Topic Review
γ-Glutamyltransferase in Urologic Neoplasms
γ-Glutamyltransferase (GGT), a membrane-bound enzyme, contributes to the metabolism of glutathione (GSH), which plays a critical physiological role in protecting cells against oxidative stress. GGT has been proposed as a biomarker of carcinogenesis and tumor progression given that GGT activity is important during both the promotion and invasion phases in cancer cells.
  • 436
  • 14 Apr 2021
Topic Review
α- and β-Pinene
α- and β-pinene are well-known representatives of the monoterpenes group, and are found in many plants’ essential oils. A wide range of pharmacological activities have been reported, including antibiotic resistance modulation, anticoagulant, antitumor, antimicrobial, antimalarial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-Leishmania, and analgesic effects. 
  • 960
  • 23 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Zebrafish Model to Understand Epigenetics
Epigenetic modifications are able to alter gene expression and include DNA methylation, different histone variants, and post-transcriptional modifications (PTMs), such as acetylation or phosphorylation, and through short/long RNAs, respectively. In this review, we focus on current knowledge concerning epigenetic modifications in gene regulation. We describe different forms of epigenetic modifications and explain how epigenetic changes can be detected. The relevance of epigenetics in renal diseases is highlighted with multiple examples and the use of the zebrafish model to study glomerular diseases in general and epigenetics in renal diseases in particular is discussed. We end with an outlook on how to use epigenetic modifications as a therapeutic target for different diseases. Here, the zebrafish model can be employed as a high-throughput screening tool not only to discover epigenetic alterations contributing to disease, but also to test novel substances that change epigenetic signatures in vivo. Therefore, the zebrafish model harbors the opportunity to find novel pathogenic pathways allowing a pre-selection of potential targets and compounds to be tested for renal diseases. 
  • 227
  • 29 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Yellow Fever Vaccination
Yellow fever (YF) remains a threat to global health, with an increasing number of major outbreaks in the tropical areas of the world over the recent past. In light of this, the Eliminate Yellow Fever Epidemics Strategy was established with the aim of protecting one billion people at risk of YF through vaccination by the year 2026. The current YF vaccine gives excellent protection, but its use is limited by shortages in supply due to the difficulties in producing the vaccine. There are good grounds for believing that alternative fractional dosing regimens can produce strong protection and overcome the problem of supply shortages as less vaccine is required per person. However, immune responses to these vaccination approaches are yet to be fully understood. In addition, published data on immune responses following YF vaccination have mostly quantified neutralising antibody titers. However, vaccine-induced antibodies can confer immunity through other antibody effector functions beyond neutralisation, and an effective vaccine is also likely to induce strong and persistent memory T cell responses.
  • 172
  • 30 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Writing Therapy
Writing therapy is a form of expressive therapy that uses the act of writing and processing the written word as therapy. Writing therapy posits that writing one's feelings gradually eases feelings of emotional trauma. Writing therapeutically can take place individually or in a group and it can be administered in person with a therapist or remotely through mailing or the Internet. The field of writing therapy includes many practitioners in a variety of settings. The therapy is usually administered by a therapist or counselor. Several interventions exist online. Writing group leaders also work in hospitals with patients dealing with mental and physical illnesses. In university departments they aid student self-awareness and self-development. When administered at a distance, it is useful for those who prefer to remain personally anonymous and are not ready to disclose their most private thoughts and anxieties in a face-to-face situation. As with most forms of therapy, writing therapy is adapted and used to work with a wide range of psychoneurotic issues, including bereavement, desertion and abuse. Many of these interventions take the form of classes where clients write on specific themes chosen by their therapist or counsellor. Assignments may include writing unsent letters to selected individuals, alive or dead, followed by imagined replies from the recipient, or a dialogue with the recovering alcoholic's bottle of alcohol.
  • 36
  • 28 Sep 2022
Topic Review
WBC and HBOT in Depression
Treatment with antidepressants is often insufficiently effective, especially in treatment-resistant depression. In such a situation, it is possible to change the drug, add a second antidepressant, or use pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods of augmenting the effect of pharmacotherapy. New methods that may fall into the scope of multi-module depression treatment as an augmentation of depression treatment are whole body cryotherapy (WBC) and hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT). 545 records were selected and analyzed for these two treatments and finally three clinical trials were selected for analysis. 
  • 147
  • 22 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Water Intoxication
Water intoxication, also known as water poisoning, hyperhydration, overhydration, or water toxemia, is a potentially fatal disturbance in brain functions that results when the normal balance of electrolytes in the body is pushed outside safe limits by excessive water intake. Under normal circumstances, accidentally consuming too much water is exceptionally rare. Nearly all deaths related to water intoxication in normal individuals have resulted either from water-drinking contests, in which individuals attempt to consume large amounts of water, or from long bouts of exercise during which excessive amounts of fluid were consumed. In addition, water cure, a method of torture in which the victim is forced to consume excessive amounts of water, can cause water intoxication. Water, just like any other substance, can be considered a poison when over-consumed in a brief period of time. Water intoxication mostly occurs when water is being consumed in a high quantity without adequate electrolyte intake. Excess of body water may also be a result of a medical condition or improper treatment; see "hyponatremia" for some examples. Water is considered one of the least toxic chemical compounds, with an LD50 of over 150 ml/kg in rats.
  • 83
  • 07 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Vitamin D in Oral Diseases Development
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble secosteroid that plays a significant role in the whole body, including the maxillofacial region. The discovery of its receptors in many cells and organs made it possible to reveal the participation of vitamin D not only in the regulation of calcium phosphate metabolism, but also in immune processes, in providing anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects, slowing down cell proliferation and stimulating differentiation. In this literature review, we demonstrate the association between low vitamin D levels and the development of recurrent aphthous stomatitis, the course and response to treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, the severity of periodontal diseases, and the processes of osseointegration and bone remodeling during dental implantation and guided tissue regeneration. 
  • 204
  • 17 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Vitamin D and Microbiota
Microbiome studies have already demonstrated unique microbial patterns in systemic autoimmune diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Dysbiosis also seems to be associated with allergies, in particular asthma, atopic dermatitis, and food allergy.
  • 51
  • 28 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Vitamin D and Infectious Diseases
It is now 2 years since we have seen the impact of the CoronaVirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) caused by Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 worldwide, affecting millions of people and rates of mortality close to 6 million. Although we are beginning to see the real benefit of vaccines, in terms of reduced mortality rates, many individuals still remain to be vaccinated or do not respond to them leaving a large number of patients still experiencing severe respiratory symptoms associated with COVID-19. In recent months, we have seen another surge in individuals infected with COVID-19 and mortality rates are also increasing. In the absence of effective therapies or vaccines, the medical and scientific community have extensively explored a range of current available therapeutic agents, mainly focused on targeting viral replication as well as managing severe respiratory symptoms associated with COVID-19.  Vitamin D has emerged as one such candidate due to its recognized immunomodulatory effects. In this regard, the activation of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling pathway may generate beneficial effects in acute respiratory distress syndrome by decreasing the cytokine/chemokine storm, thus having an important immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory role.
  • 211
  • 07 Feb 2022
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