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Anti-angiogenics currently used in cancer therapy target angiogenesis by two major mechanisms: (i) neutralizing angiogenic factors or their receptors by using macromolecule anti-angiogenic drugs (e.g., therapeutic antibodies), and (ii) blocking intracellularly the activity of receptor tyrosine kinases with small molecule (Mr < 1 kDa) inhibitors. Anti-angiogenics halt the growth and spread of cancer, and significantly prolong the disease-free survival of the patients. However, resistance to treatment, insufficient efficacy, and toxicity limit the success of this antivascular therapy. Published evidence suggests that four albumin-binding proteins (ABPs) (gp18, gp30, gp60/albondin, and secreted protein acidic and cysteine-rich (SPARC)) could be responsible for the accumulation of small molecule receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (RTKIs) in normal organs and tissues and therefore responsible for the side effects and toxicity associated with this type of cancer therapy.
20 Apr 2021
Anti-Inflammatory and Antiviral Effects of Cannabinoids
The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus made it necessary to search for new options for both causal treatment and mitigation of its symptoms. Scientists and researchers around the world are constantly looking for the best therapeutic options. These difficult circumstances have also spurred the re-examination of the potential of natural substances contained in Cannabis sativa L. Cannabinoids, apart from CB1 and CB2 receptors, may act multifacetedly through a number of other receptors, such as the GPR55, TRPV1, PPARs, 5-HT1A, adenosine and glycine receptors. The complex anti-inflammatory and antiviral effects of cannabinoids have been confirmed by interactions with various signaling pathways. Considering the fact that the SARS-CoV-2 virus causes excessive immune response and triggers an inflammatory cascade, and that cannabinoids have the ability to regulate these processes, it can be assumed that they have potential to be used in the treatment of COVID-19.
22 Apr 2022
Antibiotics Use in the Community
The general population has been excessively using antibiotics during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, the use of antibiotics for any reported illnesses in the preceding four weeks and knowledge of antibiotics among the general population in the community were assessed for possible interventions. A mobile phone survey among a general population across eight administrative divisions of Bangladesh was conducted during January–March 2021.
27 Sep 2021
Antibiotics, Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infections
Necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs) are rare life-threatening bacterial infections characterized by an extensive necrosis of skin and subcutaneous tissues. Initial urgent management of NSTIs relies on broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, rapid surgical debridement of all infected tissues and, when present, treatment of associated organ failures in the intensive care unit.
16 Sep 2021
The rising burden of cancer worldwide calls for an alternative treatment solution. Herbal medicine provides a very feasible alternative to western medicine against cancer. This entry reviews the selected plant species with active phytochemicals, the animal models used for these studies, and their regulatory aspects. This study is based on a meticulous literature review conducted through the search of relevant keywords in databases, Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and Google Scholar. Twenty plants were selected based on defined selection criteria for their potent anticancer compounds. The detailed analysis of the research studies revealed that plants play an indispensable role in fighting different cancers such as breast, stomach, oral, colon, lung, hepatic, cervical, and blood cancer cell lines. The in vitro studies showed cancer cell inhibition through DNA damage and activation of apoptosis-inducing enzymes by the secondary metabolites in the plant extracts. Studies that reported in vivo activities of these plants showed remarkable results in the inhibition of cancer in animal models.
26 Jul 2021
Antidiabetic Potential of Medicinal Plants
Diabetes mellitus is one of the major health problems in the world, the incidence and associated mortality are increasing. Inadequate regulation of the blood sugar imposes serious consequences for health. Conventional antidiabetic drugs are effective, however, also with unavoidable side effects. On the other hand, medicinal plants may act as an alternative source of antidiabetic agents.
04 Aug 2021
Antidiabetic Properties of Naringenin
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by insulin resistance and hyperglycemia and is associated with personal health and global economic burdens. Current strategies/approaches of insulin resistance and T2DM prevention and treatment are lacking in efficacy resulting in the need for new preventative and targeted therapies. In recent years, epidemiological studies have suggested that diets rich in vegetables and fruits are associated with health benefits including protection against insulin resistance and T2DM. Naringenin, a citrus flavanone, has been reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, immunomodulatory and antidiabetic properties.
14 Jul 2021
Antifungals and Drug Resistance
Antifungal drugs prevent topical or invasive fungal infections (mycoses) either by stopping growth of fungi (termed fungistatic) or by killing the fungal cells (termed fungicidal). Antibiotics also prevent bacterial infections through either bacteriostatic or bactericidal mechanisms. These microorganisms successfully develop resistance against conventional drugs that are designed to kill or stop them from multiplying. When a fungus no longer responds to antifungal drug treatments and continues to grow, this is known as antifungal drug resistance. Bacteria have an amazing capacity to become resistant to antibiotic action as well, and the effectiveness of the scarce antifungal arsenal is jeopardised by this antibiotic resistance, which poses a severe threat to public health.
21 Oct 2022
Antimicrobial Peptides and Antibiotics
Antimicrobial peptides constitute one of the most promising alternatives to antibiotics since they could be used to treat bacterial infections, especially those caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens. Many antimicrobial peptides, with various activity spectra and mechanisms of actions, have been described.
23 Sep 2021
Antioxidants and Male Fertility
Spermatozoa are physiologically exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS) that play a pivotal role on several sperm functions through activation of different intracellular mechanisms involved in physiological functions such as sperm capacitation associated-events. However, ROS overproduction depletes sperm antioxidant system, which leads to a condition of oxidative stress (OS). Subfertile and infertile men are known to present higher amount of ROS in the reproductive tract which causes sperm DNA damage and results in lower fertility and pregnancy rates. Thus, there is a growing number of couples seeking fertility treatment and assisted reproductive technologies (ART) due to OS-related problems in the male partner. Interestingly, although ART can be successfully used, it is also related with an increase in ROS production. This has led to a debate if antioxidants should be proposed as part of a fertility treatment in an attempt to decrease non-physiological elevated levels of ROS. However, the rationale behind oral antioxidants intake and positive effects on male reproduction outcome is only supported by few studies.
16 Aug 2021
Featured Entry Collections
Encyclopedia of Social Sciences
Encyclopedia of ZEMCH Research and Development
Encyclopedia of Engineering
Encyclopedia of COVID-19
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