Topic Review
2LARTH® Micro-Immunotherapy Treatment
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) are two cytokines involved in the perpetuation of the chronic inflammation state characterizing rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Significant advances in the treatment of this pathology have been made over the past ten years, partially through the development of anti-TNF and anti-IL-1 therapies. However, major side effects still persist and new alternative therapies should be considered.
  • 437
  • 19 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Gene Therapy in PolyQ SCAs
Polyglutamine spinocerebellar ataxias (PolyQ SCAs) are a group of 6 rare autosomal dominant diseases, which arise from an abnormal CAG repeat expansion in the coding region of their causative gene. These neurodegenerative ataxic disorders are characterized by progressive cerebellar degeneration, which translates into progressive ataxia, the main clinical feature, often accompanied by oculomotor deficits and dysarthria. Currently, PolyQ SCAs treatment is limited only to symptomatic mitigation, and no therapy is available to stop or delay the disease progression, which culminates with death.
  • 429
  • 27 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Calcium in Wound Healing
Calcium is a critical coagulation factor during hemostasis and a key signaling molecule for a variety of signaling pathways that regulate angiogenesis. In addition, the calcium ion has also been shown to act as a fundamental cue, directing the cellular functions of different types of cells during wound healing. Calcium plays a vital role as the extracellular signaling molecule and intracellular second messenger for keratinocytes and fibroblasts.
  • 429
  • 12 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Gut–Lung Axis Communication in COVID-19
The ecosystem of the human gastrointestinal tract, named gut microbiota, represents the most thoroughly mapped ecosystem. Perturbations on bacterial populations cause dysbiosis, a condition correlated to a wide range of autoimmune, neurological, metabolic, cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases. The lungs have their flora, which are directly related to the gut flora via bidirectional communication allowing the transport of microbial metabolites and toxins produced by intestinal bacteria through the circulation and lymphatic system. This mutual microbial cross-talk communication called the gut–lung axis modulates the immune and inflammatory response to infections. COVID-19 causes dysbiosis, altered intestinal permeability, and bacterial translocation. Dysbiosis, through the gut–lung axis, promotes hyper-inflammation, exacerbates lung damage, and worsens clinical outcomes.
  • 410
  • 08 Sep 2022
Topic Review
LEAP Motion Technology and Psychology
Technological advancement is constantly evolving, and it is also developing in the mental health field. Various applications, often based on virtual reality, have been implemented to carry out psychological assessments and interventions, using innovative human–machine interaction systems. In this context, the LEAP Motion sensing technology has raised interest, since it allows for more natural interactions with digital contents, via an optical tracking of hand and finger movements. 
  • 392
  • 14 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Traditional Healing Practices in Fiji
Traditional Healing Practices in Fiji means the therapies using ceremonies; plant-, animal-, or mineral-based medicines; energy therapies (also called biofield therapies). They are based on the belief that there are energy fields that flow through and around your body. When energy is flowing freely through your body, you have good emotional, physical and spiritual health. When you are ill, the energy flow is blocked 
  • 389
  • 28 Sep 2021
Topic Review
γ-Glutamyltransferase in Urologic Neoplasms
γ-Glutamyltransferase (GGT), a membrane-bound enzyme, contributes to the metabolism of glutathione (GSH), which plays a critical physiological role in protecting cells against oxidative stress. GGT has been proposed as a biomarker of carcinogenesis and tumor progression given that GGT activity is important during both the promotion and invasion phases in cancer cells.
  • 384
  • 14 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Pyrimidine Derivatives as Anticancer Agents
In this entry, new pyrimidine derivatives were designed, synthesized and analyzed in terms of their anticancer properties. The tested compounds were evaluated in vitro for their antitumor activity. The cytotoxic effect on normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) was also determined. According to the results, all the tested compounds exhibited inhibitory activity on the proliferation of all lines of cancer cells (colon adenocarcinoma (LoVo), resistant colon adenocarcinoma (LoVo/DX), breast cancer (MCF-7), lung cancer (A549), cervical cancer (HeLa), human leukemic lymphoblasts (CCRF-CEM) and human monocytic (THP-1)).
  • 384
  • 23 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Scorpion Venom
Scorpion venom may cause severe medical complications and untimely death if injected into the human body. A wide range of bioactive molecules can be found in scorpion venoms. Advances in separation, characterization, and biotechnological approaches have enabled not only the development of more effective treatments against scorpion envenomings, but have also led to the discovery of several scorpion venom peptides with interesting therapeutic properties. Thus, scorpion venom may not only be a medical threat to human health, but could prove to be a valuable source of bioactive molecules that may serve as leads for the development of new therapies against current and emerging diseases. 
  • 366
  • 25 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Cisplatin induced Acute Kidney Injury
Administration of the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin leads to acute kidney injury (AKI). Cisplatin-induced AKI (CIAKI) has a complex pathophysiological map, which has been linked to cellular uptake and efflux, apoptosis, vascular injury, oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress, and inflammation. Despite research efforts, pharmaceutical interventions, and clinical trials spanning over several decades, a consistent and stable pharmacological treatment option to reduce AKI in patients receiving cisplatin remains unavailable. This has been predominately linked to the incomplete understanding of CIAKI pathophysiology and molecular mechanisms involved.
  • 361
  • 21 Apr 2021
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