Topic Review
Approaches to Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems Modelling
'Medicine in silico' has been strongly encouraged due to ethical and legal limitations related to animal experiments and investigations conducted on patients. Computer models, particularly the very complex ones (virtual patients—VP), can be used in medical education and biomedical research as well as in clinical applications. Simpler patient-specific models may aid medical procedures. However, computer models are unfit for medical devices testing. Hybrid (i.e., numerical–physical) models do not have this disadvantage.
  • 70
  • 20 Jun 2022
Topic Review
ML-Based Detection Approaches of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis
Computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) systems can assist radiologists in detecting coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP) in their chest X-rays. Early diagnosis of the CWP can significantly improve workers’ survival rate.  The feature extraction and detection approaches of computer-based analysis in CWP using chest X-ray radiographs (CXR) can be summarised into three categories: classical methods including computer and international labor organization (ILO) classification-based detection; traditional machine learning methods; and CNN methods.
  • 64
  • 10 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Swarm Robotics
Swarm robotics is a dynamic research field that integrates two important concepts: Swarm Intelligence (SI) and Multi-Robotics System (MRS).
  • 185
  • 02 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Commercial Targeted Libraries in Drug Design
After the identification of a biological target (enzyme, receptor, protein and so on), the focus of the early phase of drug discovery rests on the identification of leads or compounds that exhibit pharmacological activity against this specific target. Compounds of interest are most often discovered in pre-existing libraries of compounds that can be either virtual or physical. Computer-aided methods which have become increasingly important over the years in drug development utilize virtual compound libraries. While physical compound libraries reach the number of millions of molecules, virtual compound libraries created by large pharmaceutical companies can range from 107 to 1018 molecules. Investigations of these libraries identifies specific molecules, synthetic pathways and focus on a specific chemical space. Targeted libraries are often smaller and are focused towards a specific chemical space. They are created by using relevant biological information with the aim to decrease the processing time associated with larger libraries while maintaining the most relevant chemical space where lead compounds can be found. Due to the fact that they required less computational or wet-lab labor to process they have become very popular with smaller laboratories which try to compete in the drug-development sector. Many modern vendors of compounds today offer such libraries, but the quality of the procedure used to define desired chemical space and select compounds is questionable.
  • 229
  • 25 May 2022
Topic Review
NNetEn Entropy
NNetEn is the first entropy measure that is based on artificial intelligence methods. The method modifies the structure of the LogNNet classification model so that the classification accuracy of the MNIST-10 digits dataset indicates the degree of complexity of a given time series. The calculation results of the proposed model are similar to those of existing methods, while the model structure is completely different and provides considerable advantages.
  • 151
  • 19 Apr 2022
Topic Review Peer Reviewed
Information Security Risk Assessment
Information security risk assessment is an important part of enterprises’ management practices that helps to identify, quantify, and prioritize risks against criteria for risk acceptance and objectives relevant to the organization. Risk management refers to a process that consists of identification, management, and elimination or reduction of the likelihood of events that can negatively affect the resources of the information system to reduce security risks that potentially have the ability to affect the information system, subject to an acceptable cost of protection means that contain a risk analysis, analysis of the “cost-effectiveness” parameter, and selection, construction, and testing of the security subsystem, as well as the study of all aspects of security. 
  • 427
  • 13 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Vancomycin with Muramyl Pentapeptide
Vancomycin and a native muramyl pentapeptide ended with D-alanine (MPP-D-Ala), and vancomycin and a modified muramyl pentapeptide ended with D-serine (MPP-D-Ser) form complexes in a very specific way. This complexes provide a basis for characterizing the type and stability of the connection. The type of experimentally measured and computer-simulated interactions opens the field for discussion on possible modifications to the structure of vancomycin or muramyl pentapeptide to obtain their desired characteristics.
  • 159
  • 07 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Deep Learning in Predicting Aging-Related Diseases
Aging refers to progressive physiological changes in a cell, an organ, or the whole body of an individual, over time. Aging-related diseases are highly prevalent and could impact an individual’s physical health. Recently, artificial intelligence (AI) methods have been used to predict aging-related diseases and issues, aiding clinical providers in decision-making based on patient’s medical records. Deep learning (DL), as one of the most recent generations of AI technologies, has embraced rapid progress in the early prediction and classification of aging-related issues.
  • 144
  • 29 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Imaging Techniques for Cardiac Function
Cardiac imaging techniques include a variety of distinct applications with which we can visualize cardiac function non-invasively. Through different applications of physical entities such as sound waves, X-rays, magnetic fields, and nuclear energy, along with highly sophisticated computer hardware and software, it is now possible to reconstruct the dynamic aspect of cardiac function in many forms, from static images to high-definition videos and real-time three-dimensional projections.
  • 95
  • 19 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Genome by Multidimensional Scaling
The positions of enhancers and promoters on genomic DNA remain poorly understood. Chromosomes cannot be observed during the cell division cycle because the genome forms a chromatin structure and spreads within the nucleus. However, high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) measures the physical interactions of genomes. In previous studies, DNA extrusion loops  were directly derived from Hi-C heat maps. By using Multidimensional Scaling (MDS), we can easily locate enhancers and promoters more precisely.
  • 167
  • 31 Oct 2021
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