Topic Review
Post-Stroke Movement with Motion Capture and Musculoskeletal Modeling
Research of post-stroke locomotion via musculoskeletal (MSK) modeling has offered an unprecedented insight into pathological muscle function and its interplay with skeletal geometry and external stimuli. Advances in solving the dynamical system of post-stroke effort and the generic MSK models used have triggered noticeable improvements in simulating muscle activation dynamics of stroke populations.
  • 19
  • 02 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Computational Biology in Drug Design
Traditional drug design requires a great amount of research time and developmental expense. Booming computational approaches, including computational biology, computer-aided drug design, and artificial intelligence, have the potential to expedite the efficiency of drug discovery by minimizing the time and financial cost. In recent years, computational approaches are being widely used to improve the efficacy and effectiveness of drug discovery and pipeline, leading to the approval of plenty of new drugs for marketing. The present review emphasizes on the applications of these indispensable computational approaches in aiding target identification, lead discovery, and lead optimization. Some challenges of using these approaches for drug design are also discussed. Moreover, researchers propose a methodology for integrating various computational techniques into new drug discovery and design.
  • 14
  • 28 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Nanoparticle Biodistribution
Cancer treatment and pharmaceutical development require targeted treatment and less toxic therapeutic intervention to achieve real progress against this disease. In this scenario, nanomedicine emerged as a reliable tool to improve drug pharmacokinetics and to translate to the clinical biologics based on large molecules. However, the ability of body to recognize foreign objects together with carrier transport heterogeneity derived from the combination of particle physical and chemical properties, payload and surface modification, make the designing of effective carriers very difficult. In this scenario, physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling can help to design the particles and eventually predict their ability to reach the target and treat the tumor. This effort is performed by scientists with specific expertise and skills and familiarity with artificial intelligence tools such as advanced software that are not usually in the “cords” of traditional medical or material researchers. 
  • 54
  • 04 Nov 2022
Topic Review
MG-RAST
MG-RAST is an open-source web application server that suggests automatic phylogenetic and functional analysis of metagenomes. It is also one of the biggest repositories for metagenomic data. The name is an abbreviation of Metagenomic Rapid Annotations using Subsystems Technology. The pipeline automatically produces functional assignments to the sequences that belong to the metagenome by performing sequence comparisons to databases in both nucleotide and amino-acid levels. The applications supplies phylogenetic and functional assignments of the metagenome being analysed, as well as tools for comparing different metagenomes. It also provides a RESTful API for programmatic access. The server was created and maintained by Argonne National Laboratory from the University of Chicago. In December 29 of 2016, the system had analyzed 60 terabase-pairs of data from more than 150,000 data sets. Among the analyzed data sets, more than 23,000 are available to the public. Currently, the computational resources are provided by the DOE Magellan cloud at Argonne National Laboratory, Amazon EC2 Web services, and a number of traditional clusters.
  • 35
  • 10 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Approaches to Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems Modelling
'Medicine in silico' has been strongly encouraged due to ethical and legal limitations related to animal experiments and investigations conducted on patients. Computer models, particularly the very complex ones (virtual patients—VP), can be used in medical education and biomedical research as well as in clinical applications. Simpler patient-specific models may aid medical procedures. However, computer models are unfit for medical devices testing. Hybrid (i.e., numerical–physical) models do not have this disadvantage.
  • 104
  • 20 Jun 2022
Topic Review
ML-Based Detection Approaches of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis
Computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) systems can assist radiologists in detecting coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP) in their chest X-rays. Early diagnosis of the CWP can significantly improve workers’ survival rate.  The feature extraction and detection approaches of computer-based analysis in CWP using chest X-ray radiographs (CXR) can be summarised into three categories: classical methods including computer and international labor organization (ILO) classification-based detection; traditional machine learning methods; and CNN methods.
  • 80
  • 10 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Swarm Robotics
Swarm robotics is a dynamic research field that integrates two important concepts: Swarm Intelligence (SI) and Multi-Robotics System (MRS).
  • 248
  • 02 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Commercial Targeted Libraries in Drug Design
After the identification of a biological target (enzyme, receptor, protein and so on), the focus of the early phase of drug discovery rests on the identification of leads or compounds that exhibit pharmacological activity against this specific target. Compounds of interest are most often discovered in pre-existing libraries of compounds that can be either virtual or physical. Computer-aided methods which have become increasingly important over the years in drug development utilize virtual compound libraries. While physical compound libraries reach the number of millions of molecules, virtual compound libraries created by large pharmaceutical companies can range from 107 to 1018 molecules. Investigations of these libraries identifies specific molecules, synthetic pathways and focus on a specific chemical space. Targeted libraries are often smaller and are focused towards a specific chemical space. They are created by using relevant biological information with the aim to decrease the processing time associated with larger libraries while maintaining the most relevant chemical space where lead compounds can be found. Due to the fact that they required less computational or wet-lab labor to process they have become very popular with smaller laboratories which try to compete in the drug-development sector. Many modern vendors of compounds today offer such libraries, but the quality of the procedure used to define desired chemical space and select compounds is questionable.
  • 346
  • 25 May 2022
Topic Review
NNetEn Entropy
NNetEn is the first entropy measure that is based on artificial intelligence methods. The method modifies the structure of the LogNNet classification model so that the classification accuracy of the MNIST-10 digits dataset indicates the degree of complexity of a given time series. The calculation results of the proposed model are similar to those of existing methods, while the model structure is completely different and provides considerable advantages.
  • 199
  • 19 Apr 2022
Topic Review Peer Reviewed
Information Security Risk Assessment
Information security risk assessment is an important part of enterprises’ management practices that helps to identify, quantify, and prioritize risks against criteria for risk acceptance and objectives relevant to the organization. Risk management refers to a process that consists of identification, management, and elimination or reduction of the likelihood of events that can negatively affect the resources of the information system to reduce security risks that potentially have the ability to affect the information system, subject to an acceptable cost of protection means that contain a risk analysis, analysis of the “cost-effectiveness” parameter, and selection, construction, and testing of the security subsystem, as well as the study of all aspects of security. 
  • 466
  • 13 Apr 2022
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