Topic Review
A Rule-Based Grapheme-to-Phoneme Conversion System
Natural language processing often requires grapheme-to-phoneme (G2P) conversion of an orthographic text. G2P converts strings of graphemes to corresponding sequences of phonetic transcription characters, directly from orthographic representations and it is crucial for many applications in various areas of speech and language processing.
  • 121
  • 25 Mar 2022
Topic Review
ATOM Program System
The ATOM computer system is designed to study the structure of atoms and the physical processes occurring with their participation. 
  • 87
  • 07 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Augmented Reality (AR)-based Learning Environments
Augmented reality (AR)-based learning environments are argued to foster cognitive and emotional involvement. Immersion has been identified as one of the driving forces that promote learning in technology-based learning environments.
  • 75
  • 01 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Augmented Reality Mobile App to Learn Writing
Augmented reality (AR) has been widely used in education, particularly for child education. This entry presents the design and implementation of a novel mobile app, Learn2Write, using machine learning techniques and augmented reality to teach alphabet writing.
  • 162
  • 10 Jan 2022
Topic Review Video
Blockchain Acceptance Models
Blockchain is a promising breakthrough technology that is highly applicable in manifold sectors. The adoption of blockchain technology is accompanied by a range of issues and challenges that make its implementation complicated. To facilitate the successful implementation of blockchain technology, several blockchain adoption frameworks have been developed. However, selecting the appropriate framework based on the conformity of its features with the business sector may be challenging for decision-makers. 
  • 243
  • 18 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Blockchain Privacy and Scalability
Lower renewable energy generator prices are leading people to install solar panels to reduce their electricity bills or, in some cases, even sell the surplus generated energy to the grid and earn credits from the grid operator. Generally, they are limited to trading the energy they generate with the grid company, which has a dominant role in price determination. Decentralized energy markets might increase both market competitiveness and incentive to further people’s adoption of renewable energy, reducing security vulnerabilities and improving resiliency. Blockchain is a widely studied technology to provide decentralization for energy markets. Scalability, privacy, market design, and user security are some of the open research topics.
  • 56
  • 27 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Causal Loop Diagramming of Socioeconomic Impacts of COVID-19
The complexity, multidimensionality, and persistence of the COVID-19 pandemic have prompted both researchers and policymakers to turn to transdisciplinary methods in dealing with the wickedness of the crisis. While there are increasing calls to use systems thinking to address the intricacy of COVID-19, examples of practical applications of systems thinking are still scarce. We revealed and reviewed eight studies which developed causal loop diagrams (CLDs) to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on a broader socioeconomic system. We find that major drivers across all studies are the magnitude of the infection spread and government interventions to curb the pandemic, while the most impacted variables are public perception of the pandemic and the risk of infection.
  • 149
  • 23 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Central Bank Digital Currency
Due to the growth of the internet and communication technologies, electronic financial systems are becoming popular. Physical cash is losing its preeminence, and digital numbers on computers represent money. However, electronic financial systems, mostly operated by private entities, have defects to be compensated for, such as high charges for using the system, security issues, and the problem of exclusion. As a solution, many countries around the world are considering central bank digital currency. For central bank digital currency to be utilized as a national legal tender, it must be universal and accessible regardless of time and place, similar to physical cash. Therefore, offline payment functions that extend the accessibility of central bank digital currency are becoming attractive.
  • 106
  • 26 May 2022
Topic Review
Cloud Computing
Cloud Computing (CC) provides a combination of technologies that allows the user to use the most resources in the least amount of time and with the least amount of money. CC semantics play a critical role in ranking heterogeneous data by using the properties of different cloud services and then achieving the optimal cloud service. Regardless of the efforts made to enable simple access to this CC innovation, in the presence of various organizations delivering comparative services at varying cost and execution levels, it is far more difficult to identify the ideal cloud service based on the user’s requirements.
  • 108
  • 22 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Cloud Development and 3D Printing
The United Nations (UN) 2030 agenda on sustainable development goals (SDGs) encourages us to implement sustainable infrastructure and services for confronting challenges such as large energy consumption, solid waste generation, depletion of water resources and emission of greenhouse gases in the construction industry. Therefore, to overcome challenges and establishing sustainable construction, there is a requirement to integrate information technology with innovative manufacturing processes and materials science. Moreover, the wide implementation of three-dimensional printing (3DP) technology in constructing monuments, artistic objects, and residential buildings has gained attention. The integration of the Internet of Things (IoT), cloud manufacturing (CM), and 3DP allows us to digitalize the construction for providing reliable and digitalized features to the users. In this review article, we discuss the opportunities and challenges of implementing the IoT, CM, and 3D printing (3DP) technologies in building constructions for achieving sustainability. 
  • 126
  • 12 Jul 2021
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