Topic Review
Delay Line Memory
Delay line memory is a form of computer memory, now obsolete, that was used on some of the earliest digital computers. Like many modern forms of electronic computer memory, delay line memory was a refreshable memory, but as opposed to modern random-access memory, delay line memory was sequential-access. Analog delay line technology had been used since the 1920s to delay the propagation of analog signals. When a delay line is used as a memory device, an amplifier and a pulse shaper are connected between the output of the delay line and the input. These devices recirculate the signals from the output back into the input, creating a loop that maintains the signal as long as power is applied. The shaper ensures the pulses remain well-formed, removing any degradation due to losses in the medium. The memory capacity is determined by dividing the time taken to transmit one bit into the time it takes for data to circulate through the delay line. Early delay-line memory systems had capacities of a few thousand bits, with recirculation times measured in microseconds. To read or write a particular bit stored in such a memory, it is necessary to wait for that bit to circulate through the delay line into the electronics. The delay to read or write any particular bit is no longer than the recirculation time. Use of a delay line for a computer memory was invented by J. Presper Eckert in the mid-1940s for use in computers such as the EDVAC and the UNIVAC I. Eckert and John Mauchly applied for a patent for a delay line memory system on October 31, 1947; the patent was issued in 1953. This patent focused on mercury delay lines, but it also discussed delay lines made of strings of inductors and capacitors, magnetostrictive delay lines, and delay lines built using rotating disks to transfer data to a read head at one point on the circumference from a write head elsewhere around the circumference.
  • 3
  • 01 Dec 2022
Topic Review
The ADM-3A was an influential early video display terminal, introduced in 1976. It was manufactured by Lear Siegler and had a 12-inch screen displaying 12 or 24 lines of 80 characters. It set a new industry low single unit price of $995. Its "dumb terminal" nickname came from some of the original trade publication advertisements. It quickly became commercially successful because of the rapid increase of computer communications speeds, and because of new minicomputer systems released to the market which required inexpensive operator consoles.
  • 9
  • 29 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Microcontroller Unit-Based Wireless Sensor Network Nodes
Despite numerous research efforts in the fast-growing field of wireless sensor devices, energy consumption remains a challenge that limits the lifetime of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The Internet-of-Things (IoT) technology utilizes WSNs for providing an efficient sensing and communication infrastructure. Thus, a comparison of the existing wireless sensor nodes is crucial. Of particular interest are the advances in the recent MCU-based wireless sensor node platforms, which have become diverse and fairly advanced in relation to the currently available commercial WSN platforms.
  • 22
  • 28 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Electrochemical Random-Access Memory
Electrochemical Random-Access Memory (ECRAM) is a type of non-volatile memory (NVM) with multiple levels per cell (MLC) designed for deep learning analog acceleration. An ECRAM cell is a three-terminal device composed of a conductive channel, an insulating electrolyte, an ionic reservoir, and metal contacts. The resistance of the channel is modulated by ionic exchange at the interface between the channel and the electrolyte upon application of an electric field. The charge-transfer process allows both for state retention in the absence of applied power, and for programming of multiple distinct levels, both differentiating ECRAM operation from the one of a field-effect transistor (FET). The write operation is deterministic and can result in symmetrical potentiation and depression, making ECRAM arrays attractive for acting as artificial synaptic weights in physical implementations of artificial neural networks (ANN). The technology challenges include open circuit potential (OCP) and semiconductor foundry compatibility associated with energy materials. Universities, government laboratories, and corporate research teams have contributed to the development of ECRAM for analog computing. Notably, Sandia National Laboratories designed a lithium-based cell inspired by solid-state battery materials, Stanford University built an organic proton-based cell, and International Business Machines (IBM) demonstrated in-memory selector-free parallel programming for a logistic regression task in an array of metal-oxide ECRAM designed for insertion in the back end of line (BEOL).
  • 9
  • 17 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Quantum Computing Supremacy in the Internet of Things
The Internet of Things (IoT) strongly influences the world economy; this emphasizes the importance of securing all four aspects of the IoT model: sensors, networks, cloud, and applications. Considering the significant value of public-key cryptography threats on IoT system confidentiality, it is vital to secure it. One of the potential candidates to assist in securing public key cryptography in IoT is quantum computing. Although the notion of IoT and quantum computing convergence is not new, it has been referenced in various works of literature and covered by many scholars. Quantum computing eliminates most of the challenges in IoT.
  • 75
  • 16 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Z4 (Computer)
The Z4 was arguably the world's first commercial digital computer. It was designed, and manufactured by early computer scientist Konrad Zuse's company Zuse Apparatebau, for an order placed by Henschel & Son, in 1942; though only partially assembled in Berlin, then completed in Göttingen, and not delivered by the defeat of Nazi Germany, in 1945. The Z4 was Zuse's final target for the Z3 design. Like the earlier Z2, it comprised a combination of mechanical memory and electromechanical logic, so was not a true electronic computer.
  • 29
  • 08 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Benchmarking the Performance of a Quantum Computer
The quantum computer has been claimed to show more quantum advantage than the classical computer in solving some specific problems. Many companies and research institutes try to develop quantum computers with different physical implementations. Currently, most people only focus on the number of qubits in a quantum computer and consider it as a standard to evaluate the performance of the quantum computer intuitively. However, it is quite misleading in most times, especially for investors or governments. This is because the quantum computer works in a quite different way than classical computers. Thus, quantum benchmarking is of great importance. Currently, many quantum benchmarks are proposed from different aspects.
  • 42
  • 07 Nov 2022
Topic Review
AirPort Time Capsule
The AirPort Time Capsule (originally named Time Capsule) was a wireless router sold by Apple Inc., featuring network-attached storage (NAS) and a residential gateway router, and is one of Apple's AirPort products. They are, essentially, versions of the AirPort Extreme with an internal hard drive. Apple describes it as a "Backup Appliance", designed to work in tandem with the Time Machine backup software utility introduced in Mac OS X 10.5. Introduced on January 15, 2008 and released on February 29, 2008, the device has been upgraded several times, matching upgrades in the Extreme series routers. The earliest versions supported 802.11n wireless and came with a 500 GB hard drive in the base model, while the latest model, introduced in 2013, features 802.11ac and a 3 TB hard drive. All models include three Gigabit Ethernet ports and a single USB port. The USB port can be used for external peripheral devices to be shared over the network, such as external hard drives or printers. The NAS functionality utilizes a built-in "server grade" hard drive. On April 26, 2018, Bloomberg News announced that Apple Inc. entire AirPort line had been discontinued without replacement.
  • 38
  • 04 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Computing Platforms
Unprecedented advances in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) or drones, their application has become widespread in public and industrial sectors. Now, drones are used in many areas such as the deployment of wireless networks, product shipping and delivery, precision agriculture, object detection and tracking, border surveillance and monitoring, remote sensing and environmental monitoring, traffic control, and earth mapping.
  • 144
  • 31 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Databases in Metabolomics
Metabolomics has advanced from innovation and functional genomics tools and is currently a basis in the big data-led precision medicine era. Metabolomics is promising in the pharmaceutical field and clinical research.
  • 29
  • 27 Oct 2022
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