Topic Review
Z4 (Computer)
The Z4 was arguably the world's first commercial digital computer. It was designed, and manufactured by early computer scientist Konrad Zuse's company Zuse Apparatebau, for an order placed by Henschel & Son, in 1942; though only partially assembled in Berlin, then completed in Göttingen, and not delivered by the defeat of Nazi Germany, in 1945. The Z4 was Zuse's final target for the Z3 design. Like the earlier Z2, it comprised a combination of mechanical memory and electromechanical logic, so was not a true electronic computer.
  • 25
  • 08 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Wireless Technologies for Social Distancing in COVID-19 Pandemic
So-called “social distance” refers to measures that work to prevent disease spread through minimizing human physical contact frequency and intensity, including the closure of public spaces (e.g., schools and offices), avoiding large crowds, and maintaining a safe distance between individuals. Because it reduces the likelihood that an infected person would transmit the illness to a healthy individual, social distance reduces the disease’s progression and impact. During the early stages of a pandemic, social distancing techniques can play a crucial role in decreasing the infection rate and delaying the disease’s peak. Consequently, the load on healthcare systems is reduced, and death rates are reduced. The concept of social distancing may not be as easy as physical distancing, given the rising complexity of viruses and the fast expansion of social interaction and globalization. It encompasses numerous non-pharmaceutical activities or efforts designed to reduce the spread of infectious diseases, including monitoring, detection, and alerting people. Different technologies can assist in maintaining a safe distance (e.g., 1.5 m) between persons in the adopted scenarios. There are a number of wireless and similar technologies that can be used to monitor people and public locations in real-time.
  • 309
  • 25 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Wearable Travel Aids for Blind/Partially Sighted People
The ability to travel (independently) is very important for participation in education, work, leisure activities, and all other aspects of modern life. Blind and partially sighted people experience a number of barriers to travel, including inaccessible information and environments, and consequently require support from technology or other people to overcome them. 
  • 161
  • 11 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Computing Platforms
Unprecedented advances in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) or drones, their application has become widespread in public and industrial sectors. Now, drones are used in many areas such as the deployment of wireless networks, product shipping and delivery, precision agriculture, object detection and tracking, border surveillance and monitoring, remote sensing and environmental monitoring, traffic control, and earth mapping.
  • 137
  • 31 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Sensor Network Environments
New technologies have driven the rise of what is being termed as the fourth industrial revolution. The introduction of this new revolution is amalgamating the cyber and physical worlds, bringing with it many benefits, such as the advent of industry 4.0, the internet of things, cloud technologies and smart homes and cities. These new and exciting areas are poised to have significant advantages for society; they can increase the efficiency of many systems and increase the quality of life of people. However, these emerging technologies can potentially have downsides, if used incorrectly or maliciously by bad entities. The rise of the widespread use of sensor networks to allow the mentioned systems to function has brought with it many security vulnerabilities that conventional “hard security” measures cannot mitigate. It is for this reason that a new “soft security” approach is being taken in conjunction with the conventional security means. Trust models offer an efficient way of mitigating the threats posed by malicious entities in networks that conventional security methods may not be able to combat. 
  • 82
  • 19 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Scalable Distributed Hyperledger Fabric
Blockchain technology, with its decentralization characteristics, immutability, and traceability, is well-suited for facilitating secure storage, sharing, and management of data in decentralized Internet of Things (IoT) applications. Despite the increasing development of blockchain platforms, there is still no comprehensive approach for adopting blockchain technology in IoT systems. This is due to the blockchain’s limited capability to process substantial transaction requests from a massive number of IoT devices. Hyperledger Fabric (HLF) is a popular open-source permissioned blockchain platform hosted by the Linux Foundation. 
  • 181
  • 26 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Routing in the Data Center
To have adequate routing and forwarding, it is imperative to fully exploit the topological characteristics of fat trees. Some basic requirements should be satisfied: forwarding loops avoidance, rapid failure detection, efficient network utilization (e.g., spanning-tree solutions are not acceptable), routing scalability (in addition to physical scalability). In principle, being the data center a single administrative domain, the candidates to fulfill the routing role are popular link-state IGPs. However, as they have been designed for arbitrary topologies, the flood of link-state advertisements may suffer from scalability issues. Therefore, the possible solutions should entail reducing the message flooding, exploiting the topology knowledge, or using other routing algorithms. In this regard, the following routing protocols will be considered in this work: BGP with a specific configuration for the data center, link-state algorithms with flooding reduction, and ongoing Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) efforts, namely Routing in Fat Trees (RIFT) and Link State Vector Routing (LSVR), which are leveraging link-state and distance-vector advantages to design specific routing algorithms for data centers.This entry only consider distributed control plane solutions, i.e., routing protocols. Consequently, logically centralized Software-Defined Networking (SDN) solutions are not analyzed.
  • 138
  • 27 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Quantum Computing Supremacy in the Internet of Things
The Internet of Things (IoT) strongly influences the world economy; this emphasizes the importance of securing all four aspects of the IoT model: sensors, networks, cloud, and applications. Considering the significant value of public-key cryptography threats on IoT system confidentiality, it is vital to secure it. One of the potential candidates to assist in securing public key cryptography in IoT is quantum computing. Although the notion of IoT and quantum computing convergence is not new, it has been referenced in various works of literature and covered by many scholars. Quantum computing eliminates most of the challenges in IoT.
  • 70
  • 16 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Proxy Mobile IPv6/Auxiliary Advertisement of Neighbor Detection
The technique PMIPv6/AAND (Proxy Mobile IPv6/Auxiliary Advertisement of Neighbor Detection) would introduce a novel Multiple Virtual Interface (MVI) technique in PMIPv6 to enable multi-homing. The technique supports effective inter-technology handover and solves the LL-ID swapping problem. Additional flag fields, auxiliary advertisement of neighbor detection (AAND)) fields, i.e., ‘D’ and ‘R’ are displayed in PMIPv6 message format. The new technique is known as PMIPv6/AAND, adapted from F-PMIPv6.
  • 136
  • 12 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Power Supply for Wearables with Task Offloading Capabilities
Task-offloading approaches can be efficiently combined with energy harvesting to address the issue of insufficient battery capacity and limited computation resources in IoMT devices and consequently increase the operating time of wearable devices. This is referred to as joint energy harvesting and task offloading. Using this technology, users can extract energy, convert it into useful energy, store it in the appropriate energy-storage device, and use that energy to perform the corresponding local computing and offloading tasks.
  • 161
  • 18 Feb 2022
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