Topic Review
Bonded Marine Hoses for Floating Offshore Structures (FOS)
By characterisation, a marine hose is a unique type of flexible riser used in fluid transfer. By definition, a marine hose is simply a fluid transfer conduit utilised in transferring, discharging, loading, and transporting fluids from an oil well to the platform of a floating platform or a floating structure. The fluid transfer system for bonded marine hoses is dependent on floating offshore structures (FOS). Single Point Mooring (SPM) systems are component aspects of the techno-economic design and FOS operation.
  • 1057
  • 28 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Floating Wind Turbines
Globally, the wind resource in deep water (depths > 60 m) is very abundant. Due to the abundance of potential at these depths, the wind turbines will need the design of a floating platform because the wind turbines that are currently in operation are mostly fixed at the bottom and are dependent upon conventional concrete with a gravity base that is not feasible at these depths. A balance among the two varying principles (i.e., the requirement for a stable foundation for the wind turbine’s control and operation and the nature of the substructure being innate, to respond to environmental forces) is required for the design of the floating platform for wind energy. The absence of rigid foundations results in an additional six degrees of freedom (DOFs) for the platform of floating turbines; three translational (surge X, sway Y, and heave Z) and three rotational (roll RotX, pitch RotY, and yaw RotZ). For the platforms of onshore wind turbines and bottom-mounted offshore wind turbines, the effect of soil-structure interaction (SSI) can be modeled with six degrees of freedom; three translational (horizontal forces in X and Y and vertical force in Z) and three rotational (rocking moments in X and Y and a torsional moment in Z) respectively.
  • 682
  • 11 Oct 2021
Topic Review
Reconfigurable Vectorial Thrusters
The reconfigurable vectorial thruster (RVT) is a propulsion element that changes not only the intensity of the thrust vector but also its direction. This vector reorientation by a servomotor, for example, is usually faster than the intensity change. Thus, the possibility of fast vehicle reconfiguration allows the optimized choice of the reconfigured propulsion architecture according to different tasks, minimizing the trajectory tracking error and energy consumption. Moreover, the use of RVTs can significantly reduce the total number of needed thrusters in a vehicle.
  • 423
  • 19 Mar 2021
Topic Review
Scour Protections Design Optimization
The offshore wind is the sector of marine renewable energy with the highest commercial development at present. The margin to optimise offshore wind foundations is considerable, thus attracting both the scientific and the industrial community. Due to the complexity of the marine environment, the foundation of an offshore wind turbine represents a considerable portion of the overall investment. An important part of the foundation’s costs relates to the scour protections, which prevent scour effects that can lead the structure to reach the ultimate and service limit states. Presently, the advances in scour protections design and its optimisation for marine envi-ronments face many challenges, and the latest findings are often bounded by stakeholder’s strict confidential policies.
  • 329
  • 23 Mar 2021
Topic Review
Underwater Sensing Technologies and Applications
Currently, a variety of sensing methods based on optics, acoustics, and electromagnetics are widely applied for ocean observation and exploration. Acoustic sensing contains various sonar devices for seafloor mapping, submersible navigation, and underwater object. Optical sensing technologies applied to ocean exploration include underwater imaging for objects inspection, spectrophotometry, and fluorophotometry for environmental parameters monitoring. Technologies of electromagnetics are used for underwater metal detection such as mines and mineral resources, and for underwater inspections of cables and pipelines.
  • 320
  • 13 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Cellulose Triacetate Hollow-Fiber Membranes
Cellulose triacetate (CTA)-based hollow fiber (HF) membrane is one of the commercially successful semipermeable membranes that has had a long progress since the time the excellent semi-permeable feature of cellulose-based polymers was found in 1957. Because of the reliable and excellent performances, especially for drinking water production from seawater, CTA-HFs have been widely used as reverse osmosis (RO) membranes, especially in arid regions. 
  • 320
  • 29 Mar 2021
Topic Review
Container-Ship Stowage Planning Problem
The container ship stowage planning problem (CSPP) is a very complex and challenging issue concerning the interests of shipping companies and ports.
  • 319
  • 29 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Design Considerations of Fixed and Floating Offshore Structures
Offshore structures exist in a variety of forms, and they are used for a variety of functions in varied sea depths. These structures are tailored for certain environments and sea depths and other design considerations. 
  • 306
  • 29 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Marine Gas Engine
The interest in natural gas engines as an alternative to diesel engines has intensified as crude oil prices have risen and global environmental regulations have become more stringent. Natural gas engines can improve thermal efficiency through lean combustion, owing to combustion of a wide range of fuels; meanwhile, the low carbon content of the fuel reduces CO2 emissions, which is crucial in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Natural gas engines also exhibit excellent fuel economy and low fuel costs. Unlike crude oil, natural gas is widely distributed worldwide and offers an advantage in terms of supply and demand. As a result, the demand for gas engines is increasing rapidly. Therefore, many marine engine manufacturers have developed micropilot-type gas engines that inject diesel fuel only for ignition.
  • 292
  • 25 May 2021
Topic Review
Atlas of Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters in Oceanic Applications
Piezoelectric energy harvesters provide many different application scenarios by having flexibility in their structures, coupling modes, sizes and so on.
  • 178
  • 21 Mar 2022
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