Topic Review
Retrofitting and Strengthening of Structures
In civil engineering since antiquity, structural repair has been a very particular problem. Throughout history, human-constructed buildings have been destroyed due to time, natural disasters, and even building mistakes. In this respect, the field of engineering related to structural reconstruction and recovery seeks to identify methods and techniques to accomplish this important task. The pace of the degradation of concrete buildings throughout the world is frightening. It has now been verified that even if the structural design complies with all particular building code criteria such as concrete quality, cover, and so on, there is still an acceptable high risk of concrete degradation and reinforcing corrosion. Steel corrosion has been identified as the most severe cause of reinforced concrete degradation, capable of causing fractures, spalling the concrete cover, reducing the effective c/s area of the reinforcement, and ultimately leading to collapse. In order to repair and rehabilitate other buildings, this study sought to compile the main ideas, methods, and technologies used by these influential engineers. In fact, this report contains case studies on functional restoration. The document further addresses various types of building, such as pre-stressing, post-tensioning, deployment, and pre-stressing.
  • 134
  • 24 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Microbial Fuel Cells
The intensive energy requirement of conventional wastewater treatment for aeration demands an alternative technological option that requires less energy for its operation. Due to its cost-effectiveness, biological processes such as activated sludge have been widely used for wastewater treatment. However, this technique depends on the ability of bacterial population to maintain acceptable effluent quality. If the treatment is interfered with, the bacterial population respond to the varying influents. When this occurs, exceeding effluent limits lead to environmental damage and costly fines. Consequently, treatment facilities have to be overhauled, resulting in a loss of time and financial resources.
  • 45
  • 23 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Reuse of Municipal Solid Waste in Construction
Society is highly dependent on natural resources such as rocks (aggregates) and minerals. Although they are an abundant resource on the planet, their recovery is slow in terms of human lifespan, and from this fact, they are considered non-renewable resources. The construction industry currently consumes around 3000 million tons of natural resources annually and is responsible for 34% of greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. An alternative to reduce this over-extraction is the substitution of aggregates and cement for municipal solid waste (MSW), which represents the application of the circular economy principles. This approach and the waste management hierarchy are described, with a focus on the Latin America and the Caribbean situation. MSW is composed of several fractions, such as organic waste, paper, cardboard, metals, plastic, and glass, among other valuable materials. Areas of opportunity for their reuse in the construction industry have been demonstrated worldwide: a) plastics as substitutes for aggregates or reinforcing fibers, or replaced construction elements such as bricks; b) glass in the production of concrete, mortar, and asphalt pavement; c) paper as a hygrothermal and lighting regulator in buildings, among others.  
  • 98
  • 20 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Integration of Offshore Wind with Tidal Energy
Reducing the cost of electricity generation and integrating renewable energy sources are two essential factors in encouraging the development of novel ideas to tackle the lack of enough electricity and proposing alternatives for fossil fuels. Compared with onshore wind energy resources, offshore wind fields have many advantages, such as persistent wind, faster-flowing speed, higher uniformity, and longer available time per year, flat sea surface, and low turbulence intensity, which promotes the vigorous development of the offshore wind power industry.
  • 89
  • 09 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Tree Information Modeling
Tree Information Modeling (TIM) is conceived as a digital representation of the physical and functional characteristics of a tree. It is a framework following the same tree description system (TDS) to create the digital twins of trees in real life. This framework enables easier data exchange and knowledge-sharing about trees cross multiple related professions such as urban forestry, arboriculture, and botanic plant modeling. With interdisciplinary cooperations in TIM applications, decision-making and supporting tools can be developed to guide trees' planning and life-long management.
  • 79
  • 08 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Exposure Effects Related to Nanomaterial Life Cycles
Nanoparticle-based biosensors are produced and utilized at different scales ranging from laboratory to industrial domains. While incorporating nanomaterials is beneficial to developing high-performance biosensors, at the stages of scale-up and disposal, it may lead to the unmanaged release of toxic nanomaterials. When considering the potential environmental impact and health safety of the scaled-up production of nano biosensors, it is necessary to examine the manufacturing, utilization, and end-of-life disposal of the nanomaterials used. 
  • 77
  • 06 Dec 2022
Topic Review
End-of-Life Management of Lithium-Ion Batteries and Circular Economy
Electric vehicles, which are primarily powered by lithium-ion batteries, have gained much attention as the future of transportation for their environmental and economic benefits. However, the economy of lithium-ion battery management is quite linear. A circular economy with reusing and end-of-life recycling of lithium-ion batteries, would reduce the social and environmental costs associated with the mining of metals, decelerate the depletion of natural resources, and prevent the improper management that often accompanies disposal.
  • 82
  • 01 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Wastewater Treatment Technologies
Freshwater is in limited supply, and the growing population further contributes to its scarcity. The effective treatment of wastewater is essential now more than ever, because waterborne infections significantly contribute to global deaths, and millions of people are deprived of safe drinking water. The wastewater treatment technologies include preliminary, primary, secondary, and tertiary treatments, which are effective in removing several contaminants.
  • 141
  • 30 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Integrated Design Process for Building Climate Responsiveness
Increasingly prominent energy and environmental problems have pushed for higher requirements for buildings’ energy saving. According to the conventional energy-saving design method, the cooperative operation between architects, structural and equipment engineers and other professionals cannot run smoothly, so the energy-saving and emission reduction efficiency of the whole building cannot be improved effectively. The integrated design process (IDP) is a systematic method, which is applied in the scheme design stage and according to which the multi-level design factors of cities and buildings are considered comprehensively. It provides a concrete path of multi-specialty collaborative operation for the building’s climate responsive design.
  • 69
  • 25 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Artificial Intelligence in the Effective Battery Life Cycle
The rapid growth of battery production and usage will cause waste and disposal-related issues as these batteries reach end-of-life. Moreover, it also causes the depletion of natural mineral resources. Thus, effective battery reuse and recycling procedures are highly important because they contain metals of critical importance. The recycling of batteries causes the return of valuable materials, including lead, lithium, nickel, cadmium, and copper, back to the value chain, partially easing the need to extract new resources. Moreover, recovering metals from batteries reduces the burden on landfills, the burden on the environment, and the negative impact on human health. The critical material’s recirculation also leads to a reduction of the ecological CO2 footprint, which is connected with battery cell production and may provide CO2-neutral battery cell production. Improper battery waste disposal causes harmful effects on human and animal health, as well as the environment, as they contain a huge number of heavy metals. These waste compounds contaminate water, soil, and vegetation.
  • 217
  • 25 Nov 2022
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