Topic Review
Green Bioprocessing of Algae-Derived Biochar
Biochar is a carbonaceous substance that is created from algal biomass by thermal breakdown in an oxygen-absence environment.
  • 17
  • 20 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Graphene Applications in Microbial Fuel Cells
Microbial fuel cells are increasingly an object of interest due to the possibility of simultaneous electrical energy production and wastewater treatment, and connecting them with other technologies. In addition, this technology is used to recover different resources such as nutrients, e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus or critical metals, and for desalination and biodetection. One of the essential aspects on which intensive works are in progress is the material used to build electrodes. There has been considerable development in materials for electrodes used in microbial fuel cells. More and more often, scientists reach for materials based on the most recent achievements of technology, and one of them is graphene. This material is increasingly used in industry and science, including microbial fuel cells. Graphene is connected with other materials and modified in numerous ways, and it seems to be a perfect alternative for standard carbon or stainless steel electrodes.
  • 19
  • 20 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Green Bioprocessing of Algae-Derived Biopolymers
Algae-based biopolymers may be modified by adding additives, plasticizers, and compatibilizers to enhance the intermolecular force of contact between components, and boost material strength, flexibility, and durability. Moreover, biopolymers are widely used in cosmetics, medicines, and food packaging. Furthermore, algal biopolymer could be used as a food additive due to its high nutritional content.
  • 24
  • 19 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Production of BioH2 Using Microalgae
Demand for clean energy has increased due to the proliferation of climate change impact from excessive emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) from the combustion of fossil fuels. H2 is a clean energy source since water vapor is the only byproduct after its combustion. Growing microalgae offers a promising low-energy and low-cost approach for bioH2 production. Diverse microalgae can generate bioH2, including Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp., Monoraphidium sp., Platymonas sp., Tetraspora sp., Closterium sp., and Chlamydomonas sp. Even though green microalgae have high potential as a renewable energy source, only about 70 species from more than 30 genera have been researched so far.
  • 24
  • 13 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Acid-Resistant Thin-Film Composite Nanofiltration Membrane
Membrane filtration technology has attracted extensive attention in academia and industry due to its advantages of eco-friendliness related to environmental protection and high efficiency. Polyamide thin-film composite nanofiltration (PA TFC NF) membranes have been widely used due to their high separation performance. Non-acid-resistant PA TFC NF membranes face tremendous challenges in an acidic environment. Novel and relatively acid-resistant polysulfonamide-based and triazine-based TFC NF membranes have been developed, but these have a serious trade-off in terms of permeability and selectivity. Hence, how to improve acid resistance of TFC NF membranes and their separation performance in acidic environments is a pivotal issue for the design and preparation of these membranes.
  • 23
  • 12 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Effects of Carpets on Indoor Air Quality
Interest in having a healthy and well-being environment has increased the awareness to improve indoor air quality (IAQ). Building materials influence the contribution of indoor air pollution, so understanding their behaviour on IAQ is essential. Among building materials, carpets cover surfaces of indoor environments and significantly impact IAQ due to their large surface area and multi-layers of materials components.
  • 73
  • 10 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Present Status of Biocomposite Materials
Since the complete replacement of fossil-based products is not feasible due to cost and performance, bio-based composite materials may have bio-based polymers, bio-based reinforcement, and fillers, or both, while having other ingredients from fossil fuel sources. As for reinforcement, nature can offer wooden and non-wooden fibers (bast, leaf, seed, core, grass, and reed) as composite reinforcements. Cellulosic non-wooden fibers offer tensile strengths ranging from 80 MPa for sisal to 938 MPa for ramie. Applications of biocomposites in structures and infrastructures have proven useful in terms of their moderate mechanical properties, lower cost, availability, biodegradability, and environmental considerations.. Hemp has been used in composite materials. However, it presents challenges; hemp fibers contain a high level of moisture, as plant-based sources are hydrophilic in nature. Its mechanical, thermal, and physical properties, such as tensile strength, wettability, flammability, and swelling, vary. These properties change with changes in plant anatomy, fiber processing conditions, growth conditions, and experimental methods.
  • 62
  • 09 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) Destruction Technologies
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a family of highly toxic emerging contaminants that have caught the attention of both the public and private sectors due to their adverse health impacts on society. The widely adopted separation technologies can remove PFASs from being in contact with humans; however, they remain in the environment and continue to pose health risks. On the other hand, the destructive technologies can effectively destroy PFAS compounds and fully address society’s urgent need to remediate this harmful family of chemical compounds. 
  • 70
  • 06 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Drain Water Heat Recovery Applications in Domestic Conditions
The use of energy from waste can be a key means of reducing the consumption of fossil fuels and thus reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Waste energy can be a worthy alternative to conventional energy sources in construction.
  • 34
  • 05 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Properties of Clays
 The basic component of clay–cement slurries is clays, which give specific properties to viscoplastic bodies. Since there is a whole range of clays with different degrees of crystallization, their properties are variable. This is particularly important because in technological practice, clays found in the area of the hydrotechnical work performed are usually used.
  • 29
  • 03 Jan 2023
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