Topic Review
Additive Manufacturing of Turbine Blades
Additive manufacturing is a technology of transforming a 3D prototype to a physical one directly by successive addition of the required material in a layer-by-layer manner. This technique helps to manufacture the turbine blade which is the revolution of green technology for high temperature engine parts.
  • 562
  • 11 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Void Nucleation in Metals
The research discussed about the development of micro-voids in metals, leading to ductile fracture, associated with plastic deformation, without taking into account the cleavage mechanism. Particular emphasis was placed on the results of observations and experimental studies, the characteristics of the phenomenon itself, without in-depth analysis in the field of widely used FEM modelling. The mechanism of void development as a fracture mechanism is presented. Observations of the nucleation of voids in metals from the turn of the 1950s and 1960s to the present day have been described. The nucleation mechanisms related to the defects of the crystal lattice as well as those resulting from the presence of second phase particles were characterised.
  • 276
  • 08 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Effect of Alloying Elements on Implants Properties Magnesium
Magnesium has been found to have special osteoconductive properties, which is much appreciated when used as bone implants. It has been reported that Mg, as a cofactor of the alkaline phosphatase isozymes, helps in the healing and remodeling of the bone tissue. Magnesium-based stents are also useful where biodegradable nasal stents could help avoid treatment failure that occurs due to the secondary operations that are required of traditional implants. The potential application of biodegradable magnesium alloys is not limited to its use as temporary implants.
  • 136
  • 28 Sep 2022
Topic Review
9–12% Cr Heat-Resistant Martensitic Steels
As a promising alloying approach, the modification of chemical composition by increasing the B content and decreasing the N content has been applied to improve the creep resistance of various 9–12% Cr heat-resistant martensitic steels. The 9–12% Cr steels have to exhibit high long-term creep strength, oxidation resistance in a high temperature steam, low cycle fatigue resistance, impact toughness, etc. The creep resistance is the main critical requirement: the minimum long-term creep rupture strength on the base of 100,000 h should be 100 MPa or higher at 650 °C. 
  • 120
  • 20 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Effect of Sn Grain Orientation on Electromigration
Sn-rich solder joints in three-dimensional integrated circuits and their reliability issues, such as electromigration (EM), thermomigration (TM), and thermomechanical fatigue (TMF), have drawn attention related to their use in electronic packaging.  The Sn grain orientation is recognized as playing an important role in reliability issues due to its anisotropic diffusivity, mechanical properties, and coefficient of thermal expansion.
  • 102
  • 29 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Steel Structural Property Correlation
The behaviour of plain carbon, as well as, structural steel is qualitatively different at different regimes of strain rates and temperature when they are subjected to hot-working and impact-loading conditions. Ambient temperature and carbon content are the leading factors governing the deformation behaviour and substructural evolution of these steels.
  • 223
  • 29 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Nanojoining is the process of joining two or more surfaces together using nanomaterials as the primary building blocks. This includes, but is not limited to, nanosoldering, nanobrazing, nanowelding, nanoscale diffusion bonding, and additive manufacturing. Note that, like with conventional soldering and brazing, only the filler metal undergoes melting, not the base material. Nanomaterials are materials in which at least one dimension 100 nm or less and include 0-D (e.g. nanoparticles, 1-D (e.g. nanowires and nanorods), 2-D (e.g. graphene), and 3-D (e.g. nanofoam) materials. Nanomaterials exhibit several notable properties that allow joining to occur at temperatures lower than the melting temperature of their bulk counterpart. For example, the melting temperature of Ag is 961.78 °C, but Ag nanomaterials begin to melt at a much lower temperature that is dependent depending on the size and shape. These properties include high surface area to volume ratio, the Gibbs-Thompson effect, and high surface energy. The low joining temperature of nanomaterials has been exploited numerous times for flexible electronics, printable electronics, and soldering applications; only within the last two decades have they been explored for high-temperature joining applications (>450 °C).
  • 614
  • 07 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Innovative Application of Metallic PCMs in Metal Casting
Phase Change Materials (PCMs) are materials that release or absorb sufficient latent heat at a constant temperature or a relatively narrow temperature range during their solid/liquid transformation to be used for heating or cooling purposes. Although the use of PCMs has increased significantly in recent years, their major applications are limited to Latent Heat Storage (LHS) applications, especially in solar energy systems and buildings. Metallic PCMs appear to be the best alternative to salts and organic materials due to their high conductivity, high latent heat storage capacity and wide-ranging phase change temperature. Recent studies indicate that besides their conventional applications, metallic PCMs can be used in casting design to control the solidification microstructure as well as the feedability and defect formation in castings. Use of metallic PCM-fitted chillers is believed to open new horizons in smart control of the casting structure.
  • 241
  • 23 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Chloride-Induced Corrosion of Carbon Steel in Cracked Concrete
Corrosion is an electrochemical reaction consisting of anodic and cathodic half-cell reactions. Micro-cell corrosion refers to the situation where active dissolution and the corresponding cathodic half-cell reaction occur in adjacent parts of the same metal. For a steel reinforcing bar in concrete, the surface of the corroding steel can act as a mixed electrode containing both anode and cathode regions connected by the bar itself. Macro-cell corrosion can also form on a single bar exposed to different environments within the concrete or where part of the bar extends outside the concrete. In both cases, the concrete pore solution functions as an electrolyte.
  • 94
  • 16 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) steelmaking is, worldwide, the most frequently applied process. According to the world steel organization statistical report, 2021, it saw a total production share of 73.2%, or 1371.2 million tons per year of the world steel production in 2020. The rest is produced in Electric Arc Furnace (EAF)-based steel mills (26.3%), and only a very few open-hearth and induction furnace-based steel mills. The BOF technology remains the leading technology applied based on its undoubted advantages in productivity and liquid steel composition control. The BOF technology started as the LD process 70 years ago, with the first heat applied in November 1952 in a steel mill in Linz, Austria. The name LD was formed from the first letters of the two sites with the first industrial scale plants, Linz and Donawitz, both in Austria. The history and development of the process have been honored in multiple anniversary publications over the last few decades. Nevertheless, the focus of the steel industry worldwide is significantly changing following a social and political trend and the requirement for fossil-free energy generation and industrial production to be in accordance with the world climate targets committed to in relation to the decades leading up to 2050.
  • 510
  • 09 Jun 2022
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