Topic Review
Hydrogen Embrittlement of Medium-Mn Steels
Recent research efforts to develop advanced–/ultrahigh–strength medium-Mn steels have led to the development of a variety of alloying concepts, thermo-mechanical processing routes, and microstructural variants for these steel grades. However, certain grades of advanced–/ultrahigh–strength steels (A/UHSS) are known to be highly susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement, due to their high strength levels. Hydrogen embrittlement characteristics of medium–Mn steels are less understood compared to other classes of A/UHSS, such as high Mn twinning–induced plasticity steel, because of the relatively short history of the development of this steel class and the complex nature of multiphase, fine-grained microstructures that are present in medium–Mn steels. The motivation of this paper is to review the current understanding of the hydrogen embrittlement characteristics of medium or intermediate Mn (4 to 15 wt pct) multiphase steels and to address various alloying and processing strategies that are available to enhance the hydrogen-resistance of these steel grades.
  • 377
  • 04 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Applications of Magnesium and Alloys
Since its discovery, magnesium has played an influential role in society. In its early days, military applications and wars fueled its growth. For example, magnesium was weaponized to construct incendiary bombs, flares, and ammunitions that were subsequently deployed in World War II, and it caused massive conflagrations and widespread devastations. Post-War, magnesium’s availability and unique blend of properties were explored and were found to be highly attractive for an extensive range of applications. Today, magnesium is used for engineering applications in automotive, aerospace, and consumer electronics. In addition, it has a role in organic chemistry and pharmaceuticals and is used to construct several general-purpose applications, such as sporting goods, household products, and office equipment.
  • 376
  • 09 Oct 2021
Topic Review
Metallurgical Coke Structures
The structure of coke affects its reactivity and strength, which directly influences its performance in the blast furnace.
  • 361
  • 11 Feb 2022
Topic Review
LD-Steelmaking
Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) steelmaking is, worldwide, the most frequently applied process. According to the world steel organization statistical report, 2021, it saw a total production share of 73.2%, or 1371.2 million tons per year of the world steel production in 2020. The rest is produced in Electric Arc Furnace (EAF)-based steel mills (26.3%), and only a very few open-hearth and induction furnace-based steel mills. The BOF technology remains the leading technology applied based on its undoubted advantages in productivity and liquid steel composition control. The BOF technology started as the LD process 70 years ago, with the first heat applied in November 1952 in a steel mill in Linz, Austria. The name LD was formed from the first letters of the two sites with the first industrial scale plants, Linz and Donawitz, both in Austria. The history and development of the process have been honored in multiple anniversary publications over the last few decades. Nevertheless, the focus of the steel industry worldwide is significantly changing following a social and political trend and the requirement for fossil-free energy generation and industrial production to be in accordance with the world climate targets committed to in relation to the decades leading up to 2050.
  • 332
  • 09 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Additive Manufacturing of Turbine Blades
Additive manufacturing is a technology of transforming a 3D prototype to a physical one directly by successive addition of the required material in a layer-by-layer manner. This technique helps to manufacture the turbine blade which is the revolution of green technology for high temperature engine parts.
  • 326
  • 11 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Properties of Wire Arc-Sprayed Fe-Based Coatings
Among different thermal spraying methods, arc-spraying has been widely used due to its low operating costs and high deposition efficiency. The rapid progress of cored wire technology in arc-spraying has increased possibilities for the preparation of new Fe-based coating materials with enhanced properties by adding reinforcement particles and alloying elements to suit the different applications. 
  • 300
  • 09 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Metallurgy/Weldability of High-Strength Cold-Resistant and Cryogenic Steels
Thermomechanical Controlled Processing (TMCP), the initial microstructure and mechanical properties of rolled products made of high-strength steels, have a significant influence on the properties and reliability of welded structures for low temperature and cryogenic service.
  • 298
  • 13 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining
The aim of this work is to explain the concepts of sustainability with respect to small artisanal gold mining. For this, a qualitative approach with a descriptive scope was used, for which the bibliographic review technique was conducted. In this sense, articles, theses, books and institutional documents, and any contribution related to the research topic were taken into consideration. Likewise, this documentation contributed to the delimiting aspects that allowed a contrast between the proposed definitions and small artisanal mining in the Northeast Antioquia region in Colombia. Based on the reviewed sources, different needs were recognized in artisanal small-scale gold mining in Northeast Antioquia that still need action. In conclusion, through the exposition of sustainability theories, three common factors were identified within the various positions that were raised—the environmental, economic, and sociocultural dimensions. 
  • 250
  • 27 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Mg-Zn-{Y, Ce} Alloys: Thermodynamic Modeling and Mechanical Properties
Magnesium alloys are a strong candidate for various applications in automobile and aerospace industries due to their low density and specific strength. Micro-alloying magnesium with zinc, yttrium, and cerium enhances mechanical properties of magnesium through grain refinement and precipitation hardening. 
  • 231
  • 31 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Abrasive Wear of Cermets
Abrasive wear occurs when hard particles or sometimes hard protuberances on a counterface are forced against and are moved along the surface. The amount of material removed depends on the normal load pressing particles against the surface and the sliding distance. A distinction is usually made between the two-body and the three-body abrasive wear and between low-stress (abrasive particles remain unbroken during abrasion) and high-stress (abrasive particles are broken during the wear process) abrasion. WC-based hardmetals (cemented carbides) are employed widely as wear-resistant ceramic-metal composites for tools and wear parts. Raw materials supply, environmental concerns and some limitations of hardmetals have directed efforts toward development of alternative wear-resistant composites-cermets. Cermets consist primarily of ceramic particles such as titanium carbonitride (Ti(C,N)), titanium carbide (TiC), and chromium carbide (Cr3C2) bonded with alloys of Ni, Co or Fe. Cermets as resistant to abrasive wear materials demonstrate their potential mainly in environmentally severe wear conditions – at elevated temperatures and corrosive envronments.
  • 229
  • 10 Jan 2022
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