Topic Review
Screen-Printed Electrodes
Screen printed electrodes(SPE) are disposable, low-cost and portable devices that include a miniaturized display of the working, reference and counter electrodes; based on conductive substrates like carbon nano allotropes (e.g. graphite, graphene) and metals (e.g. Au, Ag, Pt). This configuration is optimized to work with micro-volumes of samples. Their range of applications includes electrochemical analysis in environmental, clinical and agri-food fields.
  • 703
  • 21 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Copper Heap Leaching
Heap leaching is a firm extractive metallurgical technology facilitating the economical processing of different kinds of low-grade ores that are otherwise not exploited.
  • 461
  • 13 Oct 2021
Topic Review
Dyes from Microorganisms
"Dyes from Microorganisms" means production of pigments using single cell microorganisms. It is gaining traction as a sustainable alternative to conventional synthesis.
  • 320
  • 24 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Diatom-Based Biosensors
Porous materials showing some useful transducing features, i.e., any changes in their physical or chemical properties as a consequence of molecular interaction, are very attractive in the realization of sensors and biosensors. Diatom frustules have been gaining support for biosensors since they are made of nanostructured amorphous silica, but do not require any nano-fabrication step; their surface can be easily functionalized and customized for specific application; diatom frustules are photoluminescent, and they can be found in almost every pond of water on the Earth, thus assuring large and low-cost availability.
  • 270
  • 31 Mar 2021
Topic Review
Mass Transfer in Packed-Bed Columns
This review provides a thorough analysis of the most famous mass transfer models for random and structured packed-bed columns used in absorption/stripping and distillation processes, providing an overview of the equations to calculate the mass transfer parameters, i.e.: gas-side coefficient per unit surface ky [kmol·m-2·s-1], liquid-side coefficient per unit surface kx [kmol·m-2·s-1], interfacial packing area ae [m2·m-3], which constitute the ingredients to assess the mass transfer rate of packed-bed columns. This work also provides the ranges of model validity and applicability together with their main pros and cons and the criticalities behind these models, which mostly rely on the assessment of fluid-dynamics parameters such as liquid film thickness, liquid hold-up and interfacial area, or the real liquid paths or any mal-distributions flow. 
  • 252
  • 01 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Graphene Quantum Dots
Graphene quantum dots (GQD) is an efficient nanomaterial composed of one or more layers of graphene with unique properties that combine both graphene and carbon dots (CDs). It can be synthesized using carbon-rich materials as precursors, such as graphite, macromolecules polysaccharides, and fullerene. This contribution emphasizes the utilization of GQD-based materials in the fields of sensing, bioimaging, energy storage, and corrosion inhibitors. Inspired by these numerous applications, various synthetic approaches have been developed to design and fabricate GQD, particularly bottom-up and top-down processes. 
  • 220
  • 06 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Metal Sulfide Precipitation
Metal sulfide precipitation can efficiently recover several metals and metalloids from different aqueous sources, including wastewaters and hydrometallurgical solutions. 
  • 185
  • 04 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Hydrogen Economy
Environmental issues make the quest for better and cleaner energy sources a priority. Worldwide, researchers and companies are continuously working on this matter, taking one of two approaches: either finding new energy sources or improving the efficiency of existing ones. Hydrogen is a well-known energy carrier due to its high energy content, but a somewhat elusive one for being a gas with low molecular weight. The so-called "Hydrogen Economy" is based on the use of hydrogen as an energy source. This entry examines the current electrolysis processes for obtaining hydrogen, with an emphasis on alkaline water electrolysis.
  • 172
  • 18 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy
Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) is a powerful scanning probe technique for measuring the in situ electrochemical reactions occurring at various sample interfaces, such as the liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, and liquid-gas. The tip/probe of SECM is usually an ultramicroelectrode (UME) or a nanoelectrode that can move towards or over the sample of interest controlled by a precise motor positioning system. Remarkably, electrocatalysts play a crucial role in addressing the surge in global energy consumption by providing sustainable alternative energy sources. Therefore, the precise measurement of catalytic reactions offers profound insights for designing novel catalysts as well as for enhancing their performance. SECM proves to be an excellent tool for characterization and screening catalysts as the probe can rapidly scan along one direction over the sample array containing a large number of different compositions. These features make SECM more appealing than other conventional methodologies for assessing bulk solutions. SECM can be employed for investigating numerous catalytic reactions including the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), oxygen evolution reaction (OER), hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), water oxidation, glucose oxidation reaction (GOR), and CO2 reduction reaction (CO2RR) with high spatial resolution. Moreover, for improving the catalyst design, several SECM modes can be applied based on the catalytic reactions under evaluation.
  • 167
  • 11 May 2021
Topic Review
Paper-Based Sensors Application
Paper-based sensors are getting increasing attention for reliable indoor/outdoor onsite detection with non-expert operation due to low cost, portability, easy disposal, and high accuracy, as well as bulky reduced laboratory equipment. They have become powerful analysis tools in trace detection with ultra-low detection limits and extremely high accuracy, resulting in their great popularity in biological detection, environmental inspection, and other applications. However, the current paper-based sensors still encounter insufficiencies such as harsh storage, short shelf time, singleplex analyte detection, disability of holographic strain detection, and low reproducibility for direct detection of the actual sample without pretreatment. Efforts should be made to paper-based sensors with those concerns before their broad commercial application. 
  • 162
  • 22 Sep 2021
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