Topic Review
Weihe River Basin (WRB) Introduction and Governance Process
A river basin is a complete “nature–society–economy” complex system composed of natural factors such as water resources, land, and plants and human factors such as population, society, and economy. The social-ecological system (SES) framework has been put forward, which provides a new direction for the solution of complex problems in river basins. Through the use of common human language, the SES framework enables researchers to more deeply analyze the interaction between variables in the complex social ecosystem so as to form a systematic knowledge accumulation of research results in different fields.
  • 75
  • 07 May 2022
Topic Review
Watershed Eco-Compensation Mechanism in China
The watershed’s ecological environment and water resources contribute significantly to agricultural production and the people’s well-being. However, excessive exploitation and utilization of watersheds harm the watershed ecosystem environment. The reduction in biodiversity, water quality degradation, and decline in ecosystem stability have become severe. Watershed eco-compensation (WEC) is considered a significant environmental policy instrument for watershed ecological protection and management.
  • 93
  • 22 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Water–Energy–Food Nexus in Distant Past
The concept of water–energy–food (WEF) nexus is gaining favor as a means to highlight the functions of the three individual nexus elements as interrelated components of a single complex system. In practice, the nexus approach projects forward from the present, seeking to maximize future WEF synergies and avoid undesirable tradeoffs. This article seeks to gain insights into how the ancients dealt with WEF relationships, whether currently relevant principles were practiced millennia ago, and how past WEF dynamics compare to today. 
  • 87
  • 08 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Water-Related Issues in Bhutan
Water for hydropower in Bhutan has been in focus as compared to that allocated for irrigation, industries, and environmental demand. The demand for water in Bhutan has also increased in the last decade due to population increase, changes in lifestyle, and economic advancements through tourism and hydropower projects.
  • 715
  • 28 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Water Scarcity
Water scarcity, defined as long-term water imbalances occurring when the level of water demand exceeds natural water availability and supply capacity, is expected to pose high risks to both societies and economies in the next decade.
  • 208
  • 03 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Water Resources Research in the Souss-Massa Basin, Morocco
Most recent studies confirm a decreasing trend in water resources availability in the northern African region; the high competition between the sectors that use this vital resource, and the changing climate are considered as the main factors behind this situation. Under such very dynamic interactions between the natural resources, climate and the socioeconomic sectors, scientists from different perspectives have a challenging task to provide up-to-date and reliable insights to guide potential sustainable management strategies. Through the case of the Souss-Massa, the present research provides state of the art scientific research on water resources. The maps of publications analyzed showed that researchers working in the area focus more on the study of the quality, chemical processing and the impacts of climate change on the availability of water resources. The results showed that Souss-Massa is a region where an important amount of research on climate and water has been carried out. Hence, to keep up with the rapid evolution of land use and other anthropogenic actions in the basin there remain several gaps in knowledge and constraints to address.
  • 102
  • 07 May 2022
Topic Review
Water Quality Monitoring
Monitoring water quality is an essential tool for the control of pollutants and pathogens that can cause damage to the environment and human health. However, water quality analysis is usually performed in laboratory environments, often with the use of high-cost equipment and qualified professionals. With the progress of nanotechnology and the advance in engineering materials, several studies have shown, in recent years, the development of technologies aimed at monitoring water quality, with the ability to reduce the costs of analysis and accelerate the achievement of results for management and decision-making.
  • 102
  • 13 May 2022
Topic Review
Water Quality Index
A critical water quality index (WQI) method has been used to determine the overall water quality status of surface water and groundwater systems globally since the 1960s. WQI follows four steps: parameter selection, sub-indices, establishing weights, and final index aggregation.
  • 2695
  • 09 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Water Quality Degradation
Water quality degradation is happened through the natural processes that influence the surface water and groundwater quality by various sources such as climate changes, natural disasters, geological factors, soil-matrix, and hyporheic exchange. Water could also be contaminated by anthropogenic factors. Anthropogenic pollutants are substances caused by human actions, mostly resulting from land-use practices. 
  • 130
  • 05 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Water Quality and Pollution in Time of COVID-19
Researchers proposes an assessment of the COVID-19 pandemic positive and negative impacts on water bodies on different continents. Regarding the positive impacts, the SARS-CoV-2 monitoring in sewage waters is a useful mechanism in the promptly exposure of community infections and, during the pandemic, many water bodies all over the world had lower pollution levels. The negative impacts are as follows: SARS-CoV-2 presence in untreated sewage water amplifies the risk to human health; there is a lack of adequate elimination processes of plastics, drugs, and biological pollution in wastewater treatment plants; the amount of municipal and medical waste that pollutes water bodies increased; and waste recycling decreased. Urgent preventive measures need to be taken to implement effective solutions for water protection.
  • 88
  • 12 Apr 2022
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