Topic Review
17O in Hydrological Cycle
17O is the one of the naturally occurring stable isotopes of oxygen, and also it has the lowest abundance, 0.038%(). The distribution of isotopes in hydrological systems is controlled by isotope fractionation processes. Oxygen isotopes fractionate through mass-dependent isotopic fractionation, which includes kinetic processes, isotopic exchange reactions, and physicochemical phenomena (diffusion, condensation, and evaporation).
  • 224
  • 03 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Addressing, Assessing and Improving Water Security
Water security is about managing too much, too little and/or too polluted water. Water security is about the increasing importance of sustainable management of water resources, drinking water and human well-being and protection of life and property from water-related disasters. Water security is about the health of ecosystems and economic development.  A groundwork of this broad and multi-faceted concept is presented to facilitate understanding, measuring and improving water security. 
  • 461
  • 25 Jan 2022
Topic Review
AOPs for Water Treatment
Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are water treatment processes that are promising for the degradation of persistent or toxic organic pollutants, as well as compounds refractory to other environmental remediation/decontamination treatments. AOPs have gained great importance as alternative treatment processes that affect the degradation of organic species through the action of the hydroxyl radical (OH), oxidizing pollutants present in wastewater and industrial effluents. AOPs are carried out at room temperature and at a pressure close to normal, which involve the formation of very reactive radical species with a high oxidizing capacity, mainly hydroxyl (OH) radicals. These OH radicals are extremely reactive oxidizers (oxidation potential of the OH radical is approximately, Eθ = 2.8 V) and non-selective towards organic pollutants in wastewater. AOPs can be considered versatile technologies, as they provide different possible alternatives to produce OH radicals. AOPs, compared to conventional water treatment techniques, have a greater efficiency and capacity to degrade recalcitrant organic pollutants, and can generate less toxic intermediate products during their degradation.
  • 234
  • 03 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Applications of High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence
Steroids are compounds widely available in nature and synthesized for therapeutic and medical purposes. Steroids can be found in various environmental samples, including water, plant, and animal samples as well as in a variety of pharmaceutical forms. Due its sensitivity and selectivity, high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) is widely used for detection of steroids in pharmaceutical and environmental samples.
  • 121
  • 11 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Aquatic Ecology of Southern African Watersheds
Southern Africa (SA) is rich in large river basin networks, from the over 1.4 million km2 Zambezi River Basin in the upper parts and extending further to the 0.4 million km2 Limpopo and 0.9 million km2 Orange River Basin systems southwards. Given that most SA river basins hold vast mineral deposits, the mining waste generated by artisanal and mechanised mining industries has significantly affected the health of its aquatic ecosystems.
  • 246
  • 17 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Arsenic Exposure via Contaminated Water and Food Sources
Arsenic poisoning constitutes a major threat to humans, causing various health problems. The presence of arsenic in ecosystems can originate from several natural or anthropogenic activities. Arsenic can be then gradually accumulated in different food sources, such as vegetables, rice and other crops, but also in seafood, etc., and in water sources (mainly in groundwater, but also to a lesser extent in surface water), potentially used as drinking-water supplies, provoking their contamination and therefore potential health problems to the consumers. 
  • 71
  • 24 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Bacterial Markers for Fecal Pollution Detection
The goals of fecal pollution detection include fecal waste source tracking and identifying the presence of pathogens, therefore assessing potential health risks. 
  • 100
  • 30 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Bathing Water Quality (Croatia/Region/EU)
Bathing water management in the European Union (EU) is regulated by Bathing Water Directive (BWD) 2006/7/EC. The first Directive came into force in 1976 (76/160/EEC) and set the standards for designated bathing waters to be met by all EU Member States. Its main objective was to safeguard public health and protect the aquatic environment in coastal and inland areas from pollution. The Directive was repealed in 2006 by the new, revised BWD 2006/7/EC. The purpose of the new BWD is to preserve, protect and improve the quality of the environment and to protect human health. It lays down provisions for the monitoring and classification of bathing water quality, the management of bathing water quality and the procedures for informing the public about bathing water quality. All Member States were required to transpose the revised BWD into national law by 2008, with full implementation due by December 2014.
  • 136
  • 22 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Bioaccumulation of Fluoride and Its Microbially Assisted Remediation
Fluoride is widely found in soil–water systems due to anthropogenic and geogenic activities that affect millions worldwide. Fluoride ingestion results in chronic and acute toxicity, including skeletal and dental fluorosis, neurological damage, and bone softening in humans. 
  • 185
  • 17 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Biological-Based Produced Water Treatment Using Microalgae
Produced water (PW) is the most significant waste stream generated in the oil and gas industries. The generated PW has the potential to be a useful water source rather than waste. While a variety of technologies can be used for the treatment of PW for reuse, biological-based technologies are an effective and sustainable remediation method. Specifically, microalgae, which are a cost-effective and sustainable process that use nutrients to eliminate organic pollutants from PW during the bioremediation process. In these treatment processes, microalgae grow in PW free of charge, eliminate pollutants, and generate clean water that can be recycled and reused. This helps to reduce CO2 levels in the atmosphere while simultaneously producing biofuels, other useful chemicals, and added-value products. 
  • 155
  • 12 Jan 2022
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