Topic Review
Lignocellulosic biomass is the primary structural component of plant matter and is mostly inedible, generally referring to organic materials such as wood, grass, and agricultural crop residues. Biomass is a plentiful and carbon-neutral renewable energy source that may be used to create platform chemicals and fuels, especially considering that up to 75% of initial energy can be converted into biofuels.
  • 33
  • 03 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Nitration of Proteins/Lipids/DNA by Peroxynitrite Derivatives
In recent years, much interest has been generated by the idea that nitrosative stress plays a role in the aetiology of human diseases, such as atherosclerosis, inflammation, cancer, and neurological diseases. The chemical changes mediated by reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are detrimental to cell function, because they can cause nitration, which can alter the structures of cellular proteins, DNA, and lipids, and hence, impair their normal function. One of the most potent biological nitrosative agents is peroxynitrite (ONOO−), which is produced when nitric oxide (•NO) and superoxide (•O2−) are combined at extremely rapid rates. Considering the plethora of oxidations by peroxynitrite, this makes peroxynitrite the most prevalent nitrating species responsible for protein, DNA, and lipids nitration in vivo. There is biochemical evidence to suggest that the interactions of the radicals NO and superoxide result in the formation of a redox system, which includes the reactions of nitrosation and nitration, and is a component of the complex cellular signalling network. However, the chemistry involved in the nitration process with peroxynitrite derivatives is poorly understood, particularly for biological molecules, such as DNA, proteins, and lipids.
  • 136
  • 27 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Sumac as a Functional Food
Utilization of Rhus coriaria L. (sumac) is upgrading not only in their culinary use and human nutrition, but also in the pharmaceutical industry, food industry and veterinary practices. This is driven by accumulating evidence that support the ethnobotanical use of this plant; in particular, advanced knowledge of the content of nutritional, medicinal and techno-functional bioactive ingredients. Most of the antioxidant potential and therapeutic roles of sumac are increasingly attributed to its constituent tannins, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Hydroxyphenyl pyranoanthocyanins and other anthocynins are responsible for the highly desired red pigments accounting for the strong pigmentation capacity and colorant ability of sumac. Certain polyphenols and the essential oil components are responsible for the peculiar flavor and antimicrobial activity of sumac. Tannin-rich sumac extracts and isolates are known to enhance the food quality and the oxidative stability of animal products such as meat and milk. In conclusion, polyphenol-rich sumac extracts and its bioactive ingredients could be exploited towards developing novel food products which do not only address the current consumers’ interests regarding organoleptic and nutritional value of food, but also meet the growing need for ‘clean label’ as well as value addition with respect to antioxidant capacity, disease prevention, and health promotion in humans.
  • 70
  • 13 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Lipases in the Food and Nutraceutical Industry
Lipases are efficient enzymes with promising applications in the nutraceutical and food industry, as they can offer high yields, pure products under achievable reaction conditions, and are an environmentally friendly option. 
  • 43
  • 09 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Trending Methods for Rapid Cannabinoids Detection
Roadside testing of illicit drugs such as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) requires simple, rapid, and cost-effective methods. The need for non-invasive detection tools has led to the development of selective and sensitive platforms, able to detect phyto- and synthetic cannabinoids by means of their main metabolites in breath, saliva, and urine samples. One may estimate the time passed from drug exposure and the frequency of use by corroborating the detection results with pharmacokinetic data. Modified surfaces can also act as filters that allow only the target analyte to participate in the electrode reaction. In the case of cannabinoids, as in the case of other drugs, the investigation of the mechanism of action within the organism is the basis of biosensor development.
  • 100
  • 30 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Dehydrogenases involved in Reduction of CO2 to CH3OH
The three dehydrogenase enzymes involved in the CO2 to methanol conversion are: Formate dehydrogenase, Formaldehyde dehydrogenase and Alcohol dehydrogenase.
  • 77
  • 26 Aug 2022
Topic Review
High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detection Methods
Steroids are compounds widely available in nature and synthesized for therapeutic and medical purposes. Although several analytical techniques are available for the quantification of steroids, their analysis is challenging due to their low levels and complex matrices of the samples. The efficiency and quick separation of the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with the sensitivity, selectivity, simplicity, and cost-efficiency of fluorescence, make HPLC coupled to fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) an ideal tool for routine measurement and detection of steroids.
  • 174
  • 01 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Biosensing Applications of PC-12 Cell Line
The immortalized PC-12 cell line demonstrated to be a classical neuronal cell model derived from rat pheochromocytoma with the ability to acquire the sympathetic neurons features in a differentiation process in the presence of nerve growth factor. PC-12 cell line was shown to be the preferred model in neurobiology study using biosensing devices. The analytical achievements and applicability of reported biosensing devices in PC-12 cultures for the detection of ions, neurotransmitters, and cellular events are summarized.
  • 103
  • 18 Jul 2022
Topic Review
PC-12 Cell Line
PC-12 cells have been widely used as a neuronal line study model in many biosensing devices, mainly due to the neurogenic characteristics acquired after differentiation, such as high level of secreted neurotransmitter, neuron morphology characterized by neurite outgrowth, and expression of ion and neurotransmitter receptors. 
  • 68
  • 18 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Untargeted Human Milk Metabolomics
Human milk (HM) is considered the gold standard for infant nutrition. HM contains macro- and micronutrients, as well as a range of bioactive compounds (hormones, growth factors, cell debris, etc.). The analysis of the complex and dynamic composition of HM has been a permanent challenge for researchers. The use of novel, cutting-edge techniques involving different metabolomics platforms has permitted to expand knowledge on the variable composition of HM. Here, the state-of-the-art in untargeted metabolomic studies of HM, with emphasis on sampling, extraction and analysis steps is presented.
  • 94
  • 30 May 2022
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