Log in/Sign up
Arts & Humanities
Biology & Life Sciences
Business & Economics
Chemistry & Materials Science
Computer Science & Mathematics
Environmental & Earth Sciences
Medicine & Pharmacology
Public Health & Healthcare
Hoveyda–Grubbs-type complexes, ruthenium catalysts for olefin metathesis, have gained increased interest as a research target in the interdisciplinary research fields of chemistry and biology because of their high functional group selectivity in olefin metathesis reactions and stabilities in aqueous media.
26 Mar 2021
Infrared Heating Applications in Food Processing
Infrared (IR) technology is highly energy-efficient, less water-consuming, and environmentally friendly compared to conventional heating. Further, it is also characterized by homogeneity of heating, high heat transfer rate, low heating time, low energy consumption, improved product quality, and food safety. Infrared technology is used in many food manufacturing processes, such as drying, boiling, heating, peeling, polyphenol recovery, freeze-drying, antioxidant recovery, microbiological inhibition, sterilization grains, bread, roasting of food, manufacture of juices, and cooking food.
17 Dec 2021
Lipsticks History, Formulations, and Production
Lipsticks are one of the most widely used cosmetic products. Social, psychological, and therapeutic benefits can be attained from using lipstick. The beauty and attractiveness of a person are enhanced as lipsticks colour the lips and protect them from the external environment.
02 Mar 2022
Natural Emulsion Stabilizers
Natural emulsion stabilizers are polymers of amino acid, nucleic acid, carbohydrate, etc., which are derived from microorganisms, bacteria, and other organic materials. Plant and animal proteins are basic sources of natural emulsion stabilizers. Pea protein-maltodextrin and lentil protein feature entrapment capacity up to 88%, (1–10% concentrated), zein proteins feature 74–89% entrapment efficiency, soy proteins in various concentrations increase dissolution, retention, and stability to the emulsion and whey proteins, egg proteins, and proteins from all other animals are applicable in membrane formation and encapsulation to stabilize emulsion/nanoemulsion. In pharmaceutical industries, phospholipids, phosphatidyl choline (PC), phosphatidyl ethanol-amine (PE), and phosphatidyl glycerol (PG)-based stabilizers are very effective as emulsion stabilizers. Lecithin (a combination of phospholipids) is used in the cosmetics and food industries. Various factors such as temperature, pH, droplets size, etc. destabilize the emulsion. Therefore, the emulsion stabilizers are used to stabilize, preserve and safely deliver the formulated drugs, also as a preservative in food and stabilizer in cosmetic products. Natural emulsion stabilizers offer great advantages because they are naturally degradable, ecologically effective, non-toxic, easily available in nature, non-carcinogenic, and not harmful to health.
19 Jan 2022
Extraction Methods for Anthocyanins
Anthocyanins are considered high added-value compounds due to their sensory qualities, colors, and nutritional properties; they are considered bioactive ingredients. They are found in high concentrations in many by-products across the food industry. At present, expensive raw materials and production technologies make the extraction of natural anthocyanins relatively expensive.
18 Feb 2022
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Leaves
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) ascribed to the family Anacardiaceae has been adjudged as the vital traditionally significant and one of the most economically important tropical fruit crop globally.
28 May 2021
Gemini surfactants are dimeric structures, composed of two hydrophobic chains and two hydrophilic heads, linked by a spacer at or near the head groups. They present lower CMC, better efficiency to form micelles, and solubilization capacity comparedto their conventional (monomeric) counterparts. They can also reduce the surface tension of water and the oil–water interfacial tension from 10 to 100 times. This behaviour depends mainly on the nature of their components (heads, hydrophobic chains and spacer); thus, their synthesis is focused mainly on varying the type and length of these components.
21 Feb 2022
Seaweeds in Producing Safe and Sustainable Bio-Packaging
Diverse studies demonstrate that seaweed polysaccharides (e.g., alginates and carrageenans) not only provide health benefits, but also contribute to the production of biopolymeric film and biodegradable packaging. The dispersion of plastics and microplastics in the oceans provoke serious environmental issues that influence ecosystems and aquatic organisms. Thus, the sustainable use of seaweed-derived biopolymers is now crucial to replace plasticizers with biodegradable materials, and thus preserve the environment.
24 Mar 2022
Methods for Recycling Heterogenous Catalysts
The rapid separation and efficient recycling of catalysts after a catalytic reaction are considered important requirements along with the high catalytic performances. In this view, although heterogeneous catalysis is generally less efficient if compared to the homogeneous type, it is generally preferred since it benefits from the easy recovery of the catalyst. Recycling of heterogeneous catalysts using traditional methods of separation such as extraction, filtration, vacuum distillation, or centrifugation is tedious and time-consuming. They are uneconomic processes and, hence, they cannot be carried out in the industrial scale.
23 Jun 2021
Zone refining is a technology of deeply purifying metals. Its essence is to use the difference in solubility of impurity elements in the solid and molten state of the main metal to precipitate the impurities or change the distribution of the impurity elements. It provides an effective and easy method for preparing high-purity metals.
18 May 2021
Featured Entry Collections
Encyclopedia of Social Sciences
Encyclopedia of ZEMCH Research and Development
Encyclopedia of Engineering
Encyclopedia of COVID-19
Log in/Sign up
Terms and Conditions
Browse our user manual, common Q&A, author guidelines, etc.
Rate your experience
Let us know your experience and what we could improve.
Report an error
Is something wrong? Please let us know!
Other feedback you would like to report.
Did you find what you were looking for?
Do you agree to share your valuable feedback publicly on
Yes, I agree. Encyclopedia can post it.
No, I do not agree. I would not like to post my testimonial.
Upload a screenshot
(Max file size 2MB)