Topic Review
Untargeted Human Milk Metabolomics
Human milk (HM) is considered the gold standard for infant nutrition. HM contains macro- and micronutrients, as well as a range of bioactive compounds (hormones, growth factors, cell debris, etc.). The analysis of the complex and dynamic composition of HM has been a permanent challenge for researchers. The use of novel, cutting-edge techniques involving different metabolomics platforms has permitted to expand knowledge on the variable composition of HM. Here, the state-of-the-art in untargeted metabolomic studies of HM, with emphasis on sampling, extraction and analysis steps is presented.
  • 337
  • 30 May 2022
Topic Review
Trending Methods for Rapid Cannabinoids Detection
Roadside testing of illicit drugs such as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) requires simple, rapid, and cost-effective methods. The need for non-invasive detection tools has led to the development of selective and sensitive platforms, able to detect phyto- and synthetic cannabinoids by means of their main metabolites in breath, saliva, and urine samples. One may estimate the time passed from drug exposure and the frequency of use by corroborating the detection results with pharmacokinetic data. Modified surfaces can also act as filters that allow only the target analyte to participate in the electrode reaction. In the case of cannabinoids, as in the case of other drugs, the investigation of the mechanism of action within the organism is the basis of biosensor development.
  • 215
  • 18 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Torsion-Resistant Nature-Inspired Structures
The complexity of torsional load, its three-dimensional nature, its combination with other stresses, and its disruptive impact make torsional failure prevention an ambitious goal. However, even if the problem has been addressed for decades, a deep and organized treatment is still lacking in the actual research landscape. For this reason, this review aims at presenting a methodical approach to address torsional issues starting from a punctual problem definition. Accidents and breaks due to torsion, which often occur in different engineering fields such as mechanical, biomedical, and civil industry are considered and critically compared. More in depth, the limitations of common-designed torsion-resistant structures (i.e., high complexity and increased weight) are highlighted, and emerge as a crucial point for a deeper nature-driven analysis of novel solutions. In this context, an accurate screening of torsion-resistant bio-inspired unit cells is presented, taking inspiration specifically from plants, that are often subjected to the torsional effect of winds. As future insights, the actual state of technology suggests an innovative transposition to the industry: these unit cells could be prominently implied to develop novel metamaterials that could be able to address the torsional issue with a multi-scale and tailored arrangement.
  • 173
  • 09 Oct 2021
Topic Review
Thymoquinone in Chemotherapy
Thymoquinone (2-Isopropl-5-methyl benzo-1,4-quinone) is an active component of the volatile oil of Nigella sativa (black seeds). Other than the Ranunculaceae family (N. sativa), this compound has been detected in other families such as Lamiaceae (Modernadidyma, M. menthifolia, etc.), Asteraceae (Eupatorium cannabinum), and Cupressaceae (Juniperus communis).
  • 159
  • 07 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Thiazolidinedione Derivatives
Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are a kind of DMII drug. The data revealed that compounds (4–6) have higher potency than the reference drugs. Compounds (4–7) were able to regulate hyperlipidemia levels (cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoproteins and low- and very-low-density lipoproteins) to nearly normal value at the 30th day.
  • 210
  • 29 Jan 2022
Topic Review
The Rearrangement of Alkylallenes to 1,3-Dienes
1,3-Dienes are vital building blocks in organic synthesis. They underpin many fundamental synthetic transformations and are present in numerous natural products and drug candidate molecules.
  • 266
  • 19 Jan 2022
Topic Review
The Peculiar Properties of Human mitoNEET
The outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) protein mitoNEET, also known as CDGSH Fe-S domain-containing protein-1 (CISD1), is composed of 108 amino acids, encompassing a N-terminal transmembrane helix (residues 14–32) that anchors the protein to the OMM, and a cytosolic portion (residues 33–108) that has been widely investigated through X-ray crystallography, showing a unique, highly conserved folding.
  • 58
  • 05 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Thallium, as a pharmaceutical cosmetic product, is applied for facial hair removal and fungal infections of the scalp. Thallium acetate is currently used as a catalyst in organic synthesis in the oxidation of olefins and hydrocarbons, and in epoxidation and polymerization reactions. Detection of Tl is a challenging task because its concentration in environmental samples may be at a nanogram per gram level or lower.
  • 502
  • 23 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Tetrazine-Based Fluorogenic Probes
Various bioorthogonal chemistries have been used for fluorescent imaging owing to the advantageous reactions they employ. Recent advances in bioorthogonal chemistry have revolutionized labeling strategies for fluorescence imaging, with inverse electron demand Diels–Alder (iEDDA) reactions in particular attracting recent attention owing to their fast kinetics and excellent specificity. One of the most interesting features of the iEDDA labeling strategy is that tetrazine-functionalized dyes are known to act as fluorogenic probes.
  • 533
  • 13 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Terpene Mini-Path for Terpenoids Bio-Production
Terpenoids constitute the largest class of natural compounds and are extremely valuable from an economic point of view due to their extended physicochemical properties and biological activities. An alternative to produce terpenoids is the use of biotechnological tools involving, for example, the construction of enzymatic cascades (cell-free synthesis) or a microbial bio-production thanks to metabolic engineering techniques. 
  • 189
  • 22 Dec 2021
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