Topic Review
Hoveyda–Grubbs Catalyst
Hoveyda–Grubbs-type complexes, ruthenium catalysts for olefin metathesis, have gained increased interest as a research target in the interdisciplinary research fields of chemistry and biology because of their high functional group selectivity in olefin metathesis reactions and stabilities in aqueous media.
  • 1346
  • 26 Mar 2021
Topic Review
Infrared Heating Applications in Food Processing
Infrared (IR) technology is highly energy-efficient, less water-consuming, and environmentally friendly compared to conventional heating. Further, it is also characterized by homogeneity of heating, high heat transfer rate, low heating time, low energy consumption, improved product quality, and food safety. Infrared technology is used in many food manufacturing processes, such as drying, boiling, heating, peeling, polyphenol recovery, freeze-drying, antioxidant recovery, microbiological inhibition, sterilization grains, bread, roasting of food, manufacture of juices, and cooking food. 
  • 608
  • 17 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Leaves
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) ascribed to the family Anacardiaceae has been adjudged as the vital traditionally significant and one of the most economically important tropical fruit crop globally.
  • 571
  • 28 May 2021
Topic Review
Methods for Recycling Heterogenous Catalysts
The rapid separation and efficient recycling of catalysts after a catalytic reaction are considered important requirements along with the high catalytic performances. In this view, although heterogeneous catalysis is generally less efficient if compared to the homogeneous type, it is generally preferred since it benefits from the easy recovery of the catalyst. Recycling of heterogeneous catalysts using traditional methods of separation such as extraction, filtration, vacuum distillation, or centrifugation is tedious and time-consuming. They are uneconomic processes and, hence, they cannot be carried out in the industrial scale.
  • 566
  • 23 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Zone Refining
Zone refining is a technology of deeply purifying metals. Its essence is to use the difference in solubility of impurity elements in the solid and molten state of the main metal to precipitate the impurities or change the distribution of the impurity elements. It provides an effective and easy method for preparing high-purity metals. 
  • 558
  • 18 May 2021
Topic Review
Natural Emulsion Stabilizers
Natural emulsion stabilizers are polymers of amino acid, nucleic acid, carbohydrate, etc., which are derived from microorganisms, bacteria, and other organic materials. Plant and animal proteins are basic sources of natural emulsion stabilizers. Pea protein-maltodextrin and lentil protein feature entrapment capacity up to 88%, (1–10% concentrated), zein proteins feature 74–89% entrapment efficiency, soy proteins in various concentrations increase dissolution, retention, and stability to the emulsion and whey proteins, egg proteins, and proteins from all other animals are applicable in membrane formation and encapsulation to stabilize emulsion/nanoemulsion. In pharmaceutical industries, phospholipids, phosphatidyl choline (PC), phosphatidyl ethanol-amine (PE), and phosphatidyl glycerol (PG)-based stabilizers are very effective as emulsion stabilizers. Lecithin (a combination of phospholipids) is used in the cosmetics and food industries. Various factors such as temperature, pH, droplets size, etc. destabilize the emulsion. Therefore, the emulsion stabilizers are used to stabilize, preserve and safely deliver the formulated drugs, also as a preservative in food and stabilizer in cosmetic products. Natural emulsion stabilizers offer great advantages because they are naturally degradable, ecologically effective, non-toxic, easily available in nature, non-carcinogenic, and not harmful to health.
  • 429
  • 19 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Gemini Surfactants
Gemini surfactants are dimeric structures, composed of two hydrophobic chains and two hydrophilic heads, linked by a spacer at or near the head groups. They present lower CMC, better efficiency to form micelles, and solubilization capacity comparedto their conventional (monomeric) counterparts. They can also reduce the surface tension of water and the oil–water interfacial tension from 10 to 100 times. This behaviour depends mainly on the nature of their components (heads, hydrophobic chains and spacer); thus, their synthesis is focused mainly on varying the type and length of these components.
  • 339
  • 21 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Superhydrophobic Surface
Superhydrophobic surfaces are proposed to be ideal blood-compatible biomaterials attributed to their beneficial characteristics.
  • 305
  • 13 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Lipsticks History, Formulations, and Production
Lipsticks are one of the most widely used cosmetic products. Social, psychological, and therapeutic benefits can be attained from using lipstick. The beauty and attractiveness of a person are enhanced as lipsticks colour the lips and protect them from the external environment.
  • 304
  • 02 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Tetrazine-Based Fluorogenic Probes
Various bioorthogonal chemistries have been used for fluorescent imaging owing to the advantageous reactions they employ. Recent advances in bioorthogonal chemistry have revolutionized labeling strategies for fluorescence imaging, with inverse electron demand Diels–Alder (iEDDA) reactions in particular attracting recent attention owing to their fast kinetics and excellent specificity. One of the most interesting features of the iEDDA labeling strategy is that tetrazine-functionalized dyes are known to act as fluorogenic probes.
  • 264
  • 13 Apr 2021
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