Topic Review
VARTM Processed Composite Materials
Fiber-reinforced composite structures are used in different applications due to their excellent strength to weight ratio. Due to cost and tool handling issues in conventional manufacturing processes, like resin transfer molding (RTM) and autoclave, vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) is the best choice among industries. VARTM is highly productive and cheap. However, the VARTM process produces complex, lightweight, and bulky structures, suitable for mass and cost-effective production, but the presence of voids and fiber misalignment in the final processed composite influences its strength. Voids are the primary defects, and they cannot be eliminated completely, so a design without considering void defects will entail unreliability. Many conventional failure theories were used for composite design but did not consider the effect of voids defects, thus creating misleading failure characteristics.
  • 1581
  • 07 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Natural Biopolymers
Natural biopolymers are an interesting resource for edible films production, as they are environmentally friendly packaging materials.
  • 1525
  • 23 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Porous Carbon
Porous carbons are an important class of porous materials that have grown rapidly in recent years. They have the advantages of a tunable pore structure, good physical and chemical stability, a variable specific surface, and the possibility of easy functionalization.   
  • 1514
  • 29 Dec 2020
Topic Review
Polymer 3D Printing
Polymer 3D printing is an emerging technology with recent research translating towards increased use in diverse industries. The polymer 3D printing process works by depositing a polymer in a directed fashion to form a completed part, generally through layer by layer deposition.  Polymer printing is advantageous because it enables printing low-cost functional parts with diverse properties and capabilities. An important aspect polymer 3D printing is the consideration of materials, processes, and design strategies that all influence a parts performance. Research in materials has led to the development of polymers with advantageous characteristics for mechanics and biocompatibility, with tuning of mechanical properties achieved by altering printing process parameters. Suitable polymer printing processes include extrusion, resin, and powder 3D printing, which enable directed material deposition for the design of advantageous and customized architectures.  Through careful consideration of material, process, and design it is possible to create a 3D printed polymer part of complex geometry that is tuned for a specific application on a per-print basis.
  • 1511
  • 23 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Covalent Adaptable Networks
Thermosets are known to be very reliable polymeric materials for high-performance and light-weight applications, due to their retained dimensional stability, chemical inertia and rigidity over a broad range of temperatures. However, once fully cured, they cannot be easily reshaped or reprocessed, thus leaving still unsolved the issues of recycling and the lack of technological flexibility. Vitrimers, introduced by Leibler et al. in 2011, are a valiant step in the direction of bridging the chasm between thermoplastics and thermosets. Owing to their dynamic covalent networks, they can retain mechanical stability and solvent resistance, but can also flow on demand upon heating. More generally, the family of Covalent Adaptable Networks (CANs) is gleaming with astounding potential, thanks to the huge variety of chemistries that may enable bond exchange. Arising from this signature feature, intriguing properties such as self-healing, recyclability and weldability may expand the horizons for thermosets in terms of improved life-span, sustainability and overall enhanced functionality and versatility. In this review, we present a comprehensive overview of the most promising studies featuring CANs and vitrimers specifically, with particular regard for their industrial applications. Investigations into composites and sustainable vitrimers from epoxy-based and elastomeric networks are covered in detail.
  • 1384
  • 26 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Poly(lactic Acid)
Poly(lactic Acid) is one of the most promising polymers used in these applicationsand is properly called “polymer of the 21st century “. It is the only one, synthesized on a greater scale that is concurrently: biocompatible, biodegradable and biobased. PLA is an aliphatic biobased polyester derived from lactic acid (2-hydroxypropionic acid), which is mostly derived from animal or plant sources such as cellulose, starch, corn, fish waste and kitchen waste.
  • 1272
  • 15 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Water-Soluble Photoinitiators in Biomedical Applications
Light-initiated polymerization processes are currently an important tool in various industrial fields. The advancement of technology has resulted in the use of photopolymerization in various biomedical applications, such as the production of 3D hydrogel structures, the encapsulation of cells, and in drug delivery systems. The use of photopolymerization processes requires an appropriate initiating system which, in biomedical applications, must meet additional criteria: high water solubility, non-toxicity to cells, and compatibility with visible low-power light sources. This article is a literature review on those compounds that act as photoinitiators of photopolymerization processes in biomedical applications. The division of initiators according to the method of photoinitiation was described and the related mechanisms were discussed. Examples from each group of photoinitiators are presented, and their benefits, limitations and applications are outlined.
  • 1237
  • 10 Jun 2020
Topic Review
Chitosan in Fish Biotechnology
Chitosan is increasingly used for safe drug and nucleic acid delivery due to well-known properties such as bioadhesion, low toxicity, biodegradability and biocompatibility. Furthermore, chitosan derivatization can be easily performed to improve solubility and stability of chitosan-nucleic acid polyplexes, and enhance efficient target cell drug delivery, cell uptake, intracellular endosomal escape, unpacking and nuclear import of expression plasmids. This review focus attention on recent advances in chitosan-mediated gene delivery for fish biotechnology applications such as fish vaccination against bacterial and viral infection, control of gonadal development, and gene overexpression and silencing for overcoming metabolic limitations such as dependence on protein-rich diets and low glucose tolerance of farmed fish.
  • 1147
  • 27 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Non-Ionic Surfactants
Surfactants are essential in the manufacture of polymeric nanoparticles by emulsion formation methods and to preserve the stability of carriers in liquid media. The deposition of non-ionic surfactants at the interface allows a considerable reduction of the globule of the emulsion with high biocompatibility and the possibility of oscillating the final sizes in a wide nanometric range.
  • 1126
  • 29 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Jojoba Oil
Jojoba is a widely used medicinal plant that is cultivated worldwide. Its seeds and oil have a long history of use in folklore to treat various ailments, such as skin and scalp disorders, superficial wounds, sore throat, obesity, and cancer; for improvement of liver functions, enhancement of immunity, and promotion of hair growth. Extensive studies on Jojoba oil showed a wide range of pharmacological applications, including antioxidant, anti-acne and antipsoriasis, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antipyretic, analgesic, antimicrobial, and anti-hyperglycemia activities. In addition, Jojoba oil is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry, especially in cosmetics for topical, transdermal, and parenteral preparations. Jojoba oil also holds value in the industry as an anti-rodent, insecticides, lubricant, surfactant, and a source for the production of bioenergy. Jojoba oil is considered among the top-ranked oils due to its wax, which constitutes about 98% (mainly wax esters, few free fatty acids, alcohols, and hydrocarbons). In addition, sterols and vitamins with few triglyceride esters, flavonoids, phenolic and cyanogenic compounds are also present. 
  • 1105
  • 03 Jun 2021
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