Topic Review
Monochromatic X-rays
Monochromatic X-ray has a single energy level in contrast to white X-rays used in conventional radiation therapy. Irradiation of high Z elements such as gadolinium, gold and silver with a monochromatic X-ray can result in photoelectric effects that includes the release of the Auger electrons that have strong cell killing effect. To apply this principle to cancer therapy, various nanoparticles loaded with high Z elements have been developed that enabled high Z elements to be delivered to tumor. The recent addition is gadolinium-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticle (Gd-MSN). Tumor spheroids have been used as a convenient tumor model to demonstrate that monochromatic X-rays with energy level at or higher than the K-edge energy of gadolinium can destruct tumor mass that has Gd-MSN distributed throughout tumor spheroids.
  • 3137
  • 22 Jul 2020
Topic Review
Metallic Nanowires
The fundamental properties of a material can dramatically change when its dimensions are reduced nanometer scale. Metallic nanowires are one-dimensional nanostructures with diameters that are typically in a range of 10-200 nm, and lengths in a range of 5-100 µm. Metallic nanowires have many unique properties that are not seen in their bulk counterparts, such as good thermal and electrical conductivity, high aspect ratio, low sheet resistance, excellent optical transparency, etc. In the past two decades, research into metallic nanowires has encouraged breakthrough technologies in a variety of fields, including flexible transparent conductive films and electrodes, optoelectronic devices, molecular electronics, solar cells,  touch screens, biomedical science, chemical sensors, heat transfer enhancement, etc.
  • 2825
  • 29 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Non-Medical Applications of Chitosan Nanocomposite Coatings
Millions of tons of crustaceans are produced every year and consumed as protein-rich seafood but the shells and other non-edible parts constituting about half the body mass are wasted. The crustacean shells are a prominent source of polysaccharide (chitin) and protein. Chitosan, a de-acetylated form of chitin obtained from the crustacean waste are used for a variety of medical applications. In recent times, it has also found use in food and paint industries including marine antifouling coatings, due to its characteristic properties, like solubility in weak acids, film-forming ability, pH-sensitivity, antifouling properties, biodegradability, and biocompatibility. Chitosan composite coatings in food, paint and water treatment solutions have been developed. In food industries, chitosan-based composite films and coatings are applied for prolonging the post-harvest life of fruits and vegetables, while anti-corrosion and self-healing properties are mainly explored for antifouling applications in paints and metal ion chelation and antifouling properties are useful for water treatment.
  • 1936
  • 29 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Applications of Nanocellulose/Nanocarbon Composites: Focus on Biotechnology and Medicine
Nanocellulose/nanocarbon composites are newly-emerging smart hybrid materials containing cellulose nanoparticles, such as nanofibrils and nanocrystals, and carbon nanoparticles, such as “classical” carbon allotropes (fullerenes, graphene, nanotubes and nanodiamonds), or other carbon nanostructures (carbon nanofibers, carbon quantum dots, activated carbon and carbon black). The nanocellulose component acts as a dispersing agent and homogeneously distribute the carbon nanoparticles in aqueous environment. Nanocellulose/nanocarbon composites can be prepared with many advantageous properties, such as high mechanical strength, flexibility, stretchability, tunable thermal and electrical conductivity, tunable optical transparency, photodynamic and photothermal activity, nanoporous character and high adsorption capacity. They are therefore promising for a wide range of industrial applications, such as energy generation, storage and conversion, water purification, food packaging, construction of fire retardants and shape memory devices. They also hold great promise for biomedical applications, such as radical scavenging, photodynamic and photothermal therapy of tumors and microbial infections, drug delivery, biosensorics, isolation of various biomolecules, electrical stimulation of damaged tissues (e.g. cardiac, neural), neural and bone tissue engineering, engineering of blood vessels and advanced wound dressing, e.g. with antimicrobial and antitumor activity. However, the potential cytotoxicity and immunogenicity of the composites and their components must also be taken into account.
  • 1854
  • 01 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Nanodiamonds Synthesis Techniques
The "state-of-the-art" of the nanodiamonds synthesis techniques is reviewed with emphasis on the more recent one involving pulsed laser ablation. Production of NV centers inside the nanodiamonds and  post-production cleaning processes to remove residual graphite layers are also described.
  • 1564
  • 27 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Polyethylene Glycol
Lately, polyethylene glycol with nanoparticles has been demarcated as an innovative class of phase change materials with conceivable uses in the area of convective heat transfer. The amplified thermal conductivity of these nanoparticle enhanced phase change materials (PCMs) over the basic fluids (e.g., polyethylene glycol—PEG) is considered one of the driving factors for their improved performance in heat transfer.
  • 1545
  • 08 Jan 2021
Topic Review
Nanolubricants are the name given to the dispersion of nanoparticles in a base oil, and has attracted researchers due to its potential application. In addition to being used in the tribology field, nanoparticles are also used for medical, space, and composites purposes. The addition of nanoparticles in base oils is promising because it enhances specific tribological characteristics including wear-resistance and friction, and the most important reason is that the majority of them are environmentally friendly. 
  • 1424
  • 17 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Metallic Alloy Nanoparticles
Metallic alloy nanoparticles are synthesized by combining two or more different metals. Bimetallic or trimetallic nanoparticles are considered more effective than monometallic nanoparticles because of their synergistic characteristics. In this review, we outline the structure, synthesis method, properties, and biological applications of metallic alloy nanoparticles based on their plasmonic, catalytic, and magnetic characteristics.
  • 1387
  • 03 Aug 2020
Topic Review
Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles
Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAP-NP) are incorporated in oral care products such as toothpastes and mouthwashes to treat dental sensitivity or to promote enamel remineralisation. Despite the good performance of HAP-NP in this application, it is important to ensure its safety for consumers. For that reason, the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) evaluated the safety of HAP-NP as an oral care ingredient, but the issued opinion was not completely conclusive and the SCCS recommended that additional tests should be performed. The aim of the present study was to assess biocompatibility of a specific commercial HAP-NP to clarify the safety of this ingredient for oral care applications. Results evidence the safety of this HAP-NP for oral care products with the use of an in vitro replacement alternative for human gingival epithelium and a simulated gastric fluid assay.
  • 1234
  • 01 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Carbon-Based Quantum Dots for Supercapacitors
Carbon-based Quantum dots (C-QDs) are carbon-based materials that experience the quantum confinement effect, which results in superior optoelectronic properties. In recent years, C-QDs have attracted attention significantly and have shown great application potential as a high-performance supercapacitor device. C-QDs (either as a bare electrode or composite) give a new way to boost supercapacitor performances in higher specific capacitance, high energy density, and good durability. This review comprehensively summarizes the up-to-date progress in C-QD applications either in a bare condition or as a composite with other materials for supercapacitors. The current state of the three distinct C-QD families used for supercapacitors including carbon quantum dots, carbon dots, and graphene quantum dots is highlighted. 
  • 1200
  • 28 Sep 2021
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