Topic Review
Lithium-Ion Battery Fire Suppression
Lithium-ion Batteries (LiBs) hazards, techniques for mitigating risks, the suppression of LiB fires and identification of shortcomings for future improvement were thoroughly reviewed. Water is identified as an efficient cooling and suppressing agent and water mist is considered the most promising technique to extinguish LiBs fire. 
  • 3077
  • 29 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Optical Phase Shifters
Optical phase shifters have the functionality to control the phase of light by a change in the effective refractive index. In a Si photonics platform, it is an essential part composing optical modulators as well as switches in Si photonics. The realization of a silicon optical phase shifter marked a cornerstone for the development of silicon photonics, and it is expected that optical interconnects based on the technology relax the explosive datacom growth in data centers. High-performance silicon optical modulators and switches, integrated into a chip, play a very important role in optical transceivers, encoding electrical signals onto the light at high speed and routing the optical signals, respectively. The development of the devices is continuously required to meet the ever-increasing data traffic at higher performance and lower cost.
  • 3015
  • 08 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Laser Absorption Spectroscopy
Laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) is an absorption spectroscopic method that employs a laser as the light source and measures the chemical concentration based on detection of a variation of laser beam intensity after transmission along the optical path. 
  • 2899
  • 10 Sep 2020
Topic Review
Single Point Mooring (SPM) Systems with Buoys
The SPM system consists of four main components, namely, the body of the buoy, the anchoring and mooring components, the fluid transfer system and the ancillary elements. Static legs linked to the seabed underneath the surface keep the buoy body in place. Above the water level, the body has a spinning portion that is attached to the offloading/loading tanker. A roller bearing, referred to as the main bearing, connects these two portions. Due to this array, the anchored tanker can easily weather-vane around the buoy and find a steady position. The concept of the buoy is determined by the type of bearing utilized and the divide between the rotating and geostatic sections. The buoy’s size is determined by the amount of counter buoyancy required to keep the anchor chains in place, and the chains are determined by environmental conditions and vessel size.
  • 2815
  • 19 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Transparent Solar Windows
Many modern glass and window products are based on metal-dielectric coatings, which can control properties such as thermal emissivity, heat gain, colour, and transparency. These can also enable solar energy harvesting through PV integration, if the glazing structure is purpose-designed, to include luminescent materials and special microstructures. Recently, significant progress has been demonstrated in building integrated transparent solar windows, which are expected to add momentum towards the development of smart cities. These window systems are, at present in 2019, the only type of transparent and clear construction materials capable of providing significant energy savings in buildings, simultaneously with renewable energy generation.
  • 2123
  • 11 Feb 2021
Topic Review
Drag Polar
The drag polar or drag curve is the relationship between the lift on an aircraft and its drag, expressed in terms of the dependence of the drag coefficient on the lift coefficient. It may be described by an equation or displayed in a diagram called a polar plot.
  • 2108
  • 24 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Timoshenko-Ehrenfest Beam Theory
The Timoshenko-Ehrenfest beam theory was developed by Stephen Timoshenko and Paul Ehrenfest early in the 20th century. The model takes into account shear deformation and rotational bending effects, making it suitable for describing the behaviour of thick beams, sandwich composite beams, or beams subject to high-frequency excitation when the wavelength approaches the thickness of the beam. The resulting equation is of 4th order but, unlike Euler–Bernoulli beam theory, there is also a second-order partial derivative present. Physically, taking into account the added mechanisms of deformation effectively lowers the stiffness of the beam, while the result is a larger deflection under a static load and lower predicted eigenfrequencies for a given set of boundary conditions. The latter effect is more noticeable for higher frequencies as the wavelength becomes shorter (in principle comparable to the height of the beam or shorter), and thus the distance between opposing shear forces decreases. Rotary inertia effect was introduced by Bresse and Rayleigh. If the shear modulus of the beam material approaches infinity—and thus the beam becomes rigid in shear—and if rotational inertia effects are neglected, Timoshenko beam theory converges towards ordinary beam theory.
  • 2104
  • 20 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Two-dimensional (2D) materials are generally defined as crystalline substances with a few atoms thickness.Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide (2D-TMDs) semiconducting (SC) materials have exhibited unique optical and electrical properties. The layered configuration of the 2D-TMDs materials is at the origin of their strong interaction with light and the relatively high mobility of their charge carriers, which in turn prompted their use in many optoelectronic applications, such as ultra-thin field-effect transistors, photo-detectors, light emitting diode, and solar-cells. Generally, 2D-TMDs form a family of graphite-like layered thin semiconducting structures with the chemical formula of MX2, where M refers to a transition metal atom (Mo, W, etc.) and X is a chalcogen atom (Se, S, etc.). The layered nature of this class of 2D materials induces a strong anisotropy in their electrical, chemical, mechanical, and thermal properties. In particular, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is the most studied layered 2D-TMD.
  • 2055
  • 28 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Teleparallel Equivalent of General Relativity
The teleparallel equivalent of general relativity (TEGR) is an alternative geometrical formulation of the relativistic theory of gravitation. A brief description of the  TEGR is presented. The building blocks of the theory and few main achievements are discussed.
  • 2047
  • 30 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Proton–Proton Chain Reaction
The proton–proton chain reaction is one of two known sets of nuclear fusion reactions by which stars convert hydrogen to helium. It dominates in stars with masses less than or equal to that of the Sun, whereas the CNO cycle, the other known reaction, is suggested by theoretical models to dominate in stars with masses greater than about 1.3 times that of the Sun. In general, proton–proton fusion can occur only if the kinetic energy (i.e. temperature) of the protons is high enough to overcome their mutual electrostatic repulsion. In the Sun, deuterium-producing events are rare. Diprotons are the much more common result of proton–proton reactions within the star, and diprotons almost immediately decay back into two protons. Since the conversion of hydrogen to helium is slow, the complete conversion of the hydrogen in the core of the Sun is calculated to take more than ten billion years. Although called the "proton–proton chain reaction", it is not a chain reaction in the normal sense. In most nuclear reactions, a chain reaction designates a reaction that produces a product, such as neutrons given off during fission, that quickly induces another such reaction. The proton-proton chain is, like a decay chain, a series of reactions. The product of one reaction is the starting material of the next reaction. There are two such chains leading from Hydrogen to Helium in the Sun. One chain has five reactions, the other chain has six.
  • 2034
  • 21 Oct 2022
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