Topic Review
Pearlescent Pigments
Pigments are substances used to modify the colour of a material, which, unlike dyes, are insoluble both in common solvents and binders. Pigments can be either organic or inorganic, though the latest type is the most used and widespread for industry applications.
  • 4242
  • 01 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Prehistoric Paintings in Magura Cave
The paintings are made of bat guano applied over limestone, therefore two sets of laboratory specimens were considered: stone specimens and stone specimens covered with a layer of sterilized bat guano. The two investigated treatments were a commercial product based on ethyl silicate (“ES”) and a solution of diammonium hydrogen phosphate (“DAP”), aimed at forming calcium phosphates. The results of the study indicate that both treatments were able to increase mechanical properties of stone, the increase being higher for “DAP”. Both consolidants caused acceptable color changes, but the “ES” treatment significantly decreased stone wettability, water absorption and water vapor permeability, while the “DAP” treatment slightly affected those properties. In the stone+guano specimens, the presence of the guano layer affected the penetration of the consolidants, thus partly reducing their effectiveness. Compared to the stone samples, the guano layer experienced a more intense color change, alongside visible cracking. However, the adopted methodology to replicate the cave paintings was not completely successful, as the so-deposited guano layer was very prone to detachment when dry, unlike cave paintings. Future work will be dedicated to assess the consolidant performance onto samples that resemble even more closely the conditions of the cave paintings, by improving the methodology for the guano layer deposition and by contaminating specimens with soluble salts before consolidant application.
  • 2456
  • 02 Nov 2020
Topic Review Peer Reviewed
Porcelain Enamel Coatings
Porcelain enamel is an inorganic-type coating, which is applied to metals or glass for both decorative and functional purposes. This coating is a silica-based solidified glass mass obtained by high-temperature firing (temperature can range between 450 and 1200 °C depending on the substrate). Porcelain enamel coatings differ from ceramic coatings mainly by their glass structure and dilatation coefficient, and from organic paints mainly by the inorganic nature of the matrix and the chemical bond that exists between the coating and the substrate. 
  • 2046
  • 18 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Ti Nitrides and Ti Silicides
The diffusion of nitrogen into TiSi2 films of low electrical resistivity, deposited on complementary metal oxyde semiconductor (CMOS) and Schottky diodes components increases their performances. TiN acts as a good diffusion barrier, gate material, Schottky barrier contact...Both TiSi2 and TiN are synthesized in Ti films coated on Si wafers and processed in an expanding microwave plasma producing nitrogen species such as NHx...This process promotes the chemical reactions at the surface of the metal. The growth of both compounds give rise to two competing processes which are thermodynamically and kinetically controlled. Ti films, 250 nm thick, processed at 600°C for  30 min, only consist of TiSi2 crystallites and TiN of amorphous structure. TiN crystallizes at 800°C and grows at the expense of TiSi2 according to thermodynamic data. 
  • 2017
  • 30 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Lech Pawlowski
Lech PAWŁOWSKI, professor emeritus of surface engineering at the University of Limoges has been active since more than 40 years in academia and industry in the field of films and coating manufacturing and treatment as well as their characterization for the application in electronics, mechanical and biomedical engineering
  • 1600
  • 04 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Water Droplet Erosion
The term erosion is originally derived from the Latin word “rodere”, which means “to gnaw”, and used to indicate a form of materials wear (i.e. loss of material) that is caused by the impact of solid or liquid particles with sufficiently high speed. Liquid erosion can be divided into two types; cavitation erosion and liquid impingement erosion (LIE). The term Water droplet erosion (WDE) is commonly used to indicate liquid impingement erosion (LIE), where a progressive material loss is caused by the repetitive impact of high speed water droplets. WDE constitutes a major concern in many industries including aerospace and aviation, power generation industries particularly in gas turbines and steam turbines, nuclear power plants, and wind energy. Hence, WDE has become an important topic of research.
  • 1534
  • 23 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Lipid Membrane
The biological lipid membrane is the key element for the maintenance of cell architecture and physiology. Lipid membranes act as a barrier separating the inner cellular space from the outer environment and further helping in the transmission of signals across the cell boundary. The correct composition and structure of cell membranes define key pathophysiological aspects of cells.
  • 1401
  • 23 Dec 2020
Topic Review
Thin-Film Materials by RF Sputtering
We report on the development of several different thin-film material systems prepared by RF magnetron sputtering at Edith Cowan University nanofabrication labs. While focusing on the RF sputtering process optimizations for new or the previously underexplored material compositions and multilayer structures, we disclose several unforeseen material properties and behaviours. We communicate research results related to the design, prototyping, and practical fabrication of high-performance magneto-optic (MO) materials, oxide based sensor components, and transparent heat regulation coatings for advanced construction and solar windows.
  • 1298
  • 30 Oct 2020
Topic Review
2D Nanomaterials
Materials can be rightly characterized as 2D material or nanosheet if only one of its dimensions is in nano-size, they usually resemble a large sheet with one or few atomic thickness layers (more like a sheet of paper). This explains the fundamental characteristic of 2D materials and their unique properties that made them very attractive in tribological applications. Also, the method of preparation of the materials are highlighted.
  • 1216
  • 11 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Multivariable Formulation of Surfactant-Oil-Water Systems
Surfactant-Oil-Water (SOW) systems are found in nature and synthetic products. They usually result in two immiscible phases, e.g., for two liquids, a water phase (often a brine), and an oily phase (which could be extremely complex as petroleum). Surfactant partitions between the two phases according to some physicochemical rules due to molecular interactions. There is a very particular formulation case in which SOW systems can form three immiscible phases, that is, two excess phases (water and oil) in equilibrium with a  so-called middle phase (because of an intermediate density that places it in the middle of a test tube). This middle phase is a so-called bicontinuous microemulsion which has no droplets dispersed in an external phase as a typical emulsion, but a complex single-phase structure similar to a disordered liquid crystal. When stirred, SOW systems can form multiple dispersed systems that can be described as macroemulsions or nanoemulsions depending on the drop size (O/W or W/O) or multiple emulsions (w/O/W or o/W/O) with droplets inside larger drops. Since the beginnings of the 20th century with Bancroft’s rule, the properties of these systems have been related to many thermodynamic variables, generally with one effect at a time. Nowadays, the generalized physicochemical concept of SOW systems with many formulation variables involved allows to make predictions in various application cases, even for very complex systems, as in enhanced oil recovery (EOR), crude oil dehydration, paints, foods, cosmetics and pharmaceutical formulations, that requires the control on 6-8 variables or even more. This is mainly because of the presence of mixtures of oils from linear alkanes to triglycerides or complex molecules perfumes, or a mixture of salts with cations from sodium to calcium or aluminum, and anions like chloride to phosphate. The complexity is even worse with mixtures of very different surface-active species, resulting in non-linear interactions.
  • 1144
  • 17 Aug 2021
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