Topic Review
Wearable Functional Textiles
Wearable E-textile systems should be comfortable so that highest efficiency of their functionality can be achieved. The development of electronic textiles (functional textiles) as a wearable technology for various applications has intensified the use of flexible wearable functional textiles instead of wearable electronics. However, the wearable functional textiles still bring comfort complications during wear. The purpose of this review paper is to sightsee and recap recent developments in the field of functional textile comfort evaluation systems. For textile-based materials which have close contact to the skin, clothing comfort is a fundamental necessity.
  • 251
  • 03 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Uranyl Carbonate Minerals
Uranyl carbonates are one of the largest groups of secondary uranium(VI)-bearing natural phases being represented by 40 minerals approved by the International Mineralogical Association, overtaken only by uranyl phosphates and uranyl sulfates. Uranyl carbonate phases form during the direct alteration of primary U ores on contact with groundwaters enriched by CO2, thus playing an important role in the release of U to the environment. The presence of uranyl carbonate phases has also been detected on the surface of “lavas” that were formed during the Chernobyl accident.
  • 411
  • 24 Jun 2021
Topic Review
The Rheological Phase Reaction Method
The term “rheology” stands for the study of a material’s flow behavior under applied deformation forces or stress. The Rheological Phase Reaction (RPR) method is considered a “pollution-less method” to prepare any metal oxides with high crystallinity, phase purity, and fewer agglomerations depending on the proper raw materials and the right temperature conditions are being chosen. 
  • 26
  • 03 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Synthesis and Electron Doping of TiNCl
Layered metal nitride halides MNX (M = Ti, Zr, Hf; X = Cl, Br, I) have two polymorphs, including α- and β-forms, which have the FeOCl and SmSI structures, respectively. These compounds are band insulators and become metals and show superconductivity after electron doping by intercalating alkali metals between the layers. The superconductivity of β-form had been extensively characterized from decades ago, but it is not easy to consistently interpret all experimental results using conventional phonon-mediated Bardeen–Cooper–Schriefer mechanisms. The titanium compound TiNCl crystallizes only in the α-form structure. TiNCl also exhibits superconductivity as high as ~16 K after electron doping by intercalating metals and/or organic basis. It is important to compare the superconductivity of different M–N networks. However, α-form compounds are vulnerable to moisture, unlike β-form ones. The intercalation compounds are even more sensitive to humid air.
  • 174
  • 07 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Sustainable Machining of Steels
To improve occupational health and safety and the reduction of product costs, companies are moving towards sustainable manufacturing. Emphasizes the sustainable machining aspects of steel by employing techniques that require the minimal use of cutting oils, i.e., minimum quantity lubrication, and other efficient techniques like cryogenic cooling, dry cutting, solid lubricants, air/vapor/gas cooling, and cryogenic treatment. Cryogenic treatment on tools and the use of vegetable oils or biodegradable oils instead of mineral oils are used as primary techniques to enhance the overall part quality, which leads to longer tool life with no negative impacts on the environment. 
  • 302
  • 28 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Steel for Nuclear Pressure Vessels
The nuclear reactor pressure vessel is an important component of a nuclear power plant. It has been used in harsh environments such as high temperature, high pressure, neutron irradiation, thermal aging, corrosion and fatigue for a long time, which puts forward higher standards for the performance requirements for nuclear pressure vessel steel.
  • 139
  • 22 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Specification of Glazings for Façades
The correct specification of glazings for façades can reduce the energy consumption in buildings. The heat exchange occurs through transparent surfaces and radiation reaches the building as light and heat. Therefore, glazings significantly contribute to the heat transfer between outdoor and indoor spaces and act directly on daylighting and thermal comfort. The selection of glazings should be a careful process of evaluation and weighing of tradeoffs. Among the characteristics required for the specification of transparent materials, the spectrophotometric behavior is an important factor to be considered, as it enables improvements in the thermal and visual comfort of a building.
  • 162
  • 28 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Si-Based GeSn
A literature survey revealed that GeSn materials have numerous potential applications, including Si-based, integrated high-efficiency light sources; high-mobility electronic devices; low-cost Si-based high-performance shortwave infrared (SWIR) imaging sensors; Si-based photovoltaics; optical signal encoding in the mid-infrared range; high-performance logic applications; Si-based integrated thermoelectrics as wearable devices; Si-based spintronics; Si-based integrated reconfigurable dipoles; and Si-based quantum computing. GeSn-related fundamental research and development applications have also been extensively investigated. 
  • 344
  • 14 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Shot Peening and Cavitation Peening
Shot peening is a dynamically developing surface treatment used to improve the surface properties modified by tool, impact, microblasting, or shot action.
  • 264
  • 08 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Sensing Surfaces for Capacitive Biodetection
Affinity-based biosensors operate by specifically capturing a biological target with biological or synthetic capture agents such as aptamers, DNAzymes, single stranded DNAs or antibodies. Despite their high sensitivity and their suitability for miniaturization, biosensors are still limited for clinical applications due to the lack of reproducibility and specificity of their detection performance. The design and preparation of sensing surfaces are suspected to be a cause of these limitations.
  • 22
  • 18 Jan 2023
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