Topic Review
COVID-19
We present an overview of the current state of knowledge on the SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 pandemic. In addition to an overview of the epidemiological, clinical, and radiological features of SARS-CoV-2, we also summarize possible therapeutic options currently under investigation and the future outlook for the disease. Whereas the trials on SARS-CoV-2 genome-based specific vaccines and therapeutic antibodies are currently being tested, this solution is more long-term, as they require thorough testing of their safety. On the other hand, the repurposing of the existing therapeutic agents previously designed for other virus infections and pathologies happens to be the only practical approach as a rapid response measure to the emergent pandemic. The current pandemic emergency will be a trigger for more systematic drug repurposing design approaches based on big data analysis.
  • 5277
  • 06 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Transmission Dynamics of COVID-19
COVID-19 is pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus which is an emerging infectious disease, and outbreaks in more than 200 countries around the world. Consequently, the spread principles and prevention and control measures of COVID-19 have become a global problem to be solved. Here, we pose a series of dynamical models to reveal the transmission mechanisms of COVID-19. Based on these mathematical models, data fitting and spread trend of COVID-19 are explored to show the propagation law between human populations. We hope that our work may provide some useful insights for effective control of the COVID-19.
  • 3980
  • 28 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Repeated SARS Outbreaks in China
Within last 17 years two widespread epidemics of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) occurred in China, which were caused by related coronaviruses (CoVs): SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. Although the origin(s) of these viruses are still unknown and their occurrences in nature are mysterious, some general patterns of their pathogenesis and epidemics are noticeable. Both viruses utilize the same receptor—angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)—for invading human bodies. Both epidemics occurred in cold dry winter seasons celebrated with major holidays, and started in regions where dietary consumption of wildlife is a fashion. Thus, if bats were the natural hosts of SARS-CoVs, cold temperature and low humidity in these times might provide conducive environmental conditions for prolonged viral survival in these regions concentrated with bats. The widespread existence of these bat-carried or -released viruses might have an easier time in breaking through human defenses when harsh winter makes human bodies more vulnerable. Once succeeding in making some initial human infections, spreading of the disease was made convenient with increased social gathering and holiday travel. These natural and social factors influenced the general progression and trajectory of the SARS epidemiology. However, some unique factors might also contribute to the origination of SARS in Wuhan. These factors are discussed in different scenarios in order to promote more research for achieving final validation.
  • 2616
  • 01 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Research on COVID-19
As of March, most of the world is under the order of a “lockdown” or “restricted movement control” whereby world leaders and medical experts believe that social isolation is the best option at reducing the spread of the highly infectious and novel disease, that is Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19). While this preventive measure is in place, various diagnostic kits and treatment strategies are being researched daily to diagnose and curb this disease quickly. This report summarizes the characteristics of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and evaluates the diagnostic kits and treatment drugs as well as vaccines that are either currently being used (RT-PCR) or in the clinical pipeline for safety and efficacy testing, respectively. The sooner efficient diagnosis and treatment can be made, the greater the number of lives will be saved.
  • 1985
  • 30 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Malignant Brain Tumors
A discussion of malignant brain tumors including both primary tumors (gliomas, embryonal CNS tumors) and secondary tumors (brain metastasis).
  • 1960
  • 18 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19
Since the pandemic induced by the coronavirus SARS-CoV2 began to be spread throughout the whole world, many medical attempts to control the infection and avoid the high rate of mortality and morbidity have been made, collapsing the ICUs of many Hospitals. Many different treatments have been tested, but mortality reached very high values, especially in people in the middle/ elder age. Survivors usually develop important sequelae, even time after the infection had been controlled. In this article, we propose two different approaches to avoid the infection or mitigate their effects. One of them is based in the administration of GH, as preventive,  given its known effect on the production of lymphocytes and a high number of antibodies, as well as for helping in the recovery of the damaged organs. The other one is the administration of melatonin, both to prevent the infection and to act on inflammation once the disease is established. Both hormones are safe and can synergize when the damage to organs is established. GH administration has to be interrupted if the cytokine storm appears because the hormone can increase it. This is a novel approach that will be analyzed in extent, on scientific bases, throughout this article.  
  • 1676
  • 05 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Brainstem Encephalitis
Brainstem encephalitis refers to inflammatory diseases affecting the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. The causes of brainstem encephalitis include infections, autoimmune diseases, and paraneoplastic syndromes. Listeria is a common etiology of infectious rhombencephalitis. The trigeminal nerve has been proposed as a pathway through which Listeria monocytogenes reaches the brainstem after entering damaged oropharyngeal mucosa or periodontal tissues. Listeria monocytogenes may also invade the brainstem along the vagus nerve after it infects enteric neurons in the walls of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • 1417
  • 22 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Cytokines in Inflammatory Disease
This review aims to briefly discuss a short list of a broad variety of inflammatory cytokines. Numerous studies have implicated that inflammatory cytokines exert important effects with regard to various inflammatory diseases, yet the reports on their specific roles are not always consistent. They can be used as biomarkers to indicate or monitor disease or its progress, and also may serve as clinically applicable parameters for therapies. Yet, their precise role is not always clearly defined. Thus, in this entry, researchers focus on the existing literature dealing with the biology of cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1, IL-33, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), IL-10, and IL-8. We will briefly focus on the correlations and role of these inflammatory mediators in the genesis of various inflammatory impacts.
  • 1266
  • 13 Oct 2021
Topic Review
SARS-CoV-2
In December of 2019, the first few cases of novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia were reported in Wuhan, China. Since then, in a series of novel reports, a research group from Nankai University of China (the Nankai group) presented several important findings of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2): (1) The alternative translations of Nankai CDS (a 465- or 468-bp genomic region) could produce more than 17 putative proteins of the betacoronavirus subgroup B (BB coronavirus); (2) A furin protease cleavage site (FCS) was discovered in the Spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2; (3) 5' UTR barcoding can be used for the detection, identification, classification and phylogenetic analysis of, but not limited to coronavirus; (4) The FCS in the SARS-CoV-2 genome was acquired through the combination of copy number variations of short tandem repeats and single nucleotide substitutions [4]; and (5) two criteria were proposed to determine the intermediate host(s).
  • 1013
  • 13 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Coronavirus Invasion
Single-strand RNA (ssRNA) viruses such as the coronavirus family replicate the virus genomes by taking advantage of host cells. For example, after coronavirus approaches the ribosome of the epithelial cells or other host cells, it uses the ribosome of the host cell to replicate polyproteins. The replication and subsequent processes of precursor polyproteins can occur in the epithelial cells. After the coronavirus’ polyproteins are expressed, two enzymes — specifically, coronavirus main proteinase (3CLpro) and the papain-like protease (PLpro) — are thought to be involved in cleaving the polyproteins into smaller products used for replicating new viruses. In order to generate the daughter RNA genome, the coronavirus expresses an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), which is a crucial replicase that catalyzes the synthesis of a complementary RNA strand using the virus RNA template
  • 1010
  • 28 Oct 2020
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