Topic Review
3D Dynamic Cell Culture Systems
The traditional two-dimensional (2D) cell culture methods have a long history of mimicking in vivo cell growth. 3D cell carriers have been gradually developed to provide a 3D matrix-like structure for cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation, and communication in static and dynamic culture conditions. 3D cell carriers in dynamic culture systems could primarily provide different mechanical stimulations which further mimic the real in vivo microenvironment.
  • 23
  • 23 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Mitochondrial Transporters on Metabolic Rewiring of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma
 Pancreatic cancer is among the deadliest cancers worldwide and commonly presentsas pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of PDAC.Glucose and glutamine metabolism are extensively rewired in order to fulfil both energetic andsynthetic demands of this aggressive tumour and maintain favorable redox homeostasis. Themitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC), the glutamine carrier (SLC1A5_Var), the glutamate carrier(GC), the aspartate/glutamate carrier (AGC), and the uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) have all beenshown to influence PDAC cell growth and progression. The expression of MPC is downregulatedin PDAC and its overexpression reduces cell growth rate, whereas the other four transporters areusually overexpressed and the loss of one or more of them renders PDAC cells unable to grow andproliferate by altering the levels of crucial metabolites such as aspartate. The aim of this review isto comprehensively evaluate the current experimental evidence about the function of these carriersin PDAC metabolic rewiring. Dissecting the precise role of these transporters in the context of thetumour microenvironment is necessary for targeted drug development.
  • 22
  • 22 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Growth and Yield of Gomphrena in Mid Hill.
Effect of Organic Sources of Nutrients on Growth and Yield of Globe Amaranth in Mid Hill, Nepal.  According to the results Treatment 4 which is mixture of FYM and Goat manure de the best response for marketable yield (44.8 g), flower per plant (115.12), and flower per branch (8.3). Globe amaranth farmers in Sundar bazar, Lamjung would profit from applying a mixture of goat manure and FYM
  • 16
  • 21 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Effects of Food Additives on Gut Microbiota
The gut microbiota has been confirmed as an important part in human health, and is even take as an ‘organ’. The interaction between the gut microbiota and host intestinal environment plays a key role in digestion, metabolism, immunity, inflammation, and diseases. The dietary component is a major factor that affects the composition and function of gut microbiota. Food additives have been widely used to improve the color, taste, aroma, texture, and nutritional quality of processed food. The increasing variety and quantity of processed food in diets lead to increased frequency and dose of food additives exposure, especially artificial food additives, which has become a concern of consumers. There are studies focusing on the impact of food additives on the gut microbiota, as long-term exposure to food additives could induce changes in the microbes, and the gut microbiota is related to human health and disease. 
  • 17
  • 21 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Time-Restricted Feeding and Obesity
Obesity is a complex multifactorial disease involving environmental factors, genetic predispositions, and human behaviors. Obesity has been commonly associated with muscle dysfunction and given the important metabolic roles and contribution to physical activity, maintaining muscle health is key to attenuation and prevention. A possible therapeutic strategy involves the implementation of a behavior intervention known as time-restricted feeding (TRF) which has garnered attention from the scientific community due to its associated benefits in metabolism and attenuation of obesity among others.
  • 24
  • 20 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Immune Function and Cancer Correlation
Autoimmunity and cancer rates have both been on the rise in Western civilization leading many to question if there is a link between the two entities. Likewise, the association between immunodeficiency or induced immunodeficiency and malignancy has been at the forefront of medical research with particular interest in the transplanted patients, HIV patients and patients with autoimmune disease requiring chronic immunosuppression. 
  • 15
  • 20 Jan 2023
Topic Review
DNA Methylation in Algae and Abiotic Stress Responses
DNA methylation is one of the most conserved epigenetic mechanisms, playing a pivotal role in organism response to several biotic and abiotic stressors. Indeed, stress can induce changes in gene expression through hypo- or hyper-methylation of DNA at specific loci and/or in DNA methylation at the genome-wide level, which has an adaptive significance and can direct genome evolution. Exploring DNA methylation in responses to abiotic stress could have important implications for improving stress tolerance in algae.
  • 17
  • 20 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Role of RasGRP1 in Cancer
 The dysregulation of RasGRP1 is known to contribute to numerous disorders that range from autoimmune and inflammatory diseases and schizophrenia to neoplasia. Given its position at the crossroad of cell development, inflammation, and cancer, RASGRP1 has garnered interest from numerous disciplines.
  • 17
  • 20 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Cadmium Phytoremediation Using Rice
Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal that causes severe health issues in humans. Cd accumulates in the human body when foods produced in Cd-contaminated fields are eaten. Therefore, soil remediation of contaminated fields is necessary to provide safe foods. Rice is one of the primary candidates for phytoremediation. There is a genotypic variation of Cd concentration in the shoots and grains of rice. Using the world rice core collection, ‘Jarjan’, ‘Anjana Dhan’, and ‘Cho-ko-koku’ were observed with a significantly higher level of Cd accumulation in the shoots and grains. Moreover, OsHMA3, a heavy metal transporter, was identified as a responsive gene of quantitative trait locus (QTL) for high Cd concentration in the shoots of these three varieties likewise. However, it is difficult to apply practical phytoremediation to these varieties because of their unfavorable agricultural traits, such as shatter and easily lodged. New rice varieties and lines were bred for Cd phytoremediation using OsHMA3 as a DNA marker selection. All of them accumulated Cd in the shoots equal to or higher than ‘Cho-ko-koku’ with improved cultivation traits. Therefore, they can be used for practical Cd phytoremediation.
  • 19
  • 20 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Modulation of NOS Isoforms by Dietary Polyphenols
Nitric oxide (NO) plays several key roles in the functionality of an organism, and it is usually released in numerous organs and tissues. There are mainly three isoforms of the enzyme that produce NO starting from the metabolism of arginine, namely endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). The expression and activity of these isoforms depends on the activation/deactivation of different signaling pathways at an intracellular level following different physiological and pathological stimuli. Compounds of natural origin such as polyphenols, which are obtainable through diet, have been widely studied in in vivo and in vitro investigations for their ability to induce or inhibit NO release, depending on the tissue. 
  • 55
  • 20 Jan 2023
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