Topic Review
Zinc Transport
Zinc is a micronutrient involved in many fundamental roles that are vital for routine bodily functions. A tight control of its concentration, however, is necessary to ensure balance inside the cells. Zinc transporters are thus essential to maintain cellular homeostasis.
  • 179
  • 25 Mar 2021
Topic Review
YAP and TAZ Mediators
Cell reprogramming can either refer to a direct conversion of a specialized cell into another or to a reversal of a somatic cell into an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC). It implies a peculiar modification of the epigenetic asset and gene regulatory networks needed for a new cell, to better fit the new phenotype of the incoming cell type. Cellular reprogramming also implies a metabolic rearrangement, similar to that observed upon tumorigenesis, with a transition from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis. The induction of a reprogramming process requires a nexus of signaling pathways, mixing a range of local and systemic information, and accumulating evidence points to the crucial role exerted by the Hippo pathway components Yes-Associated Protein (YAP) and Transcriptional Co-activator with PDZ-binding Motif (TAZ).
  • 93
  • 28 May 2021
Topic Review
Vascularization in Bone Tissue Engineering
Bone is a highly vascularized tissue, and its development, maturation, remodeling, and regeneration are dependent on a tight regulation of blood vessel supply. This condition also has to be taken into consideration in the context of the development of artificial tissue substitutes. In classic tissue engineering, bone-forming cells such as primary osteoblasts or mesenchymal stem cells are introduced into suitable scaffolds and implanted in order to treat critical-size bone defects.
  • 84
  • 31 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Biomechanics
Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of global death in developing countries. More than 80% of cardiovascular disease-associated mortality is attributable to atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease of the vessel wall. During the development of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases, vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) continuously shift from a contractile state towards other phenotypes that differ substantially from differentiated SMCs.
  • 100
  • 22 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived sEV
Small extracellular vesicles (sEV) are a group of particles of nanometric size, released by virtually all cells. These vesicles function as biologic messengers, carrying proteins, lipids and nucleic acids as a form of paracrine cellular communication. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a priviledged source of sEV, due to its abundance in naïve cells with strong regenerative and immunomodulatory potential. Hence, UCB-derived sEV can be exploited for their therapeutic properties, taking advantage of nature's tools for achieving homeostasis.
  • 67
  • 29 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Tumour Microenvironment in Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common and lethal cancers worldwide. Currently, treatments available for advanced HCC provide dismal chances of survival, thus there is an urgent need to develop more effective therapeutic strategies. While much of the focus of recent decades has been on targeting malignant cells, promising results have emerged from targeting the tumour microenvironment (TME). The extracellular matrix (ECM) is the main non-cellular component of the TME and it profoundly changes during tumorigenesis to promote the growth and survival of malignant cells.
  • 64
  • 26 Nov 2021
Topic Review
TMDC Nanozymes: Application Perspective
Applications of TMDC NZs in different fields—starting from biosensing to different treatment fields like antibacterial, anti-inflammation activity and cancer therapy—are discussed in more details. 
  • 74
  • 29 Mar 2022
Topic Review
The Biomechanics of Cartilage
Articular cartilage (AC) sheathes joint surfaces and minimizes friction in diarthrosis. The resident cell population, chondrocytes, are surrounded by an extracellular matrix and a multitude of proteins, which bestow their unique characteristics. AC is characterized by a zonal composition (superficial (tangential) zone, middle (transitional) zone, deep zone, calcified zone) with different mechanical properties. An overview is given about different testing (load tests) methods as well as different modeling approaches.
  • 323
  • 14 Apr 2021
Topic Review
The Androgen Axis in CRPC
Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying prostate cancer (PCa) progression towards its most aggressive, castration-resistant (CRPC) stage is urgently needed to improve the therapeutic options for this almost incurable pathology. Interestingly, CRPC is known to be characterized by a peculiar hormonal landscape. It is now well established that the androgen/androgen receptor (AR) axis is still active in CRPC cells. The persistent activity of this axis in PCa progression has been shown to be related to different mechanisms, such as: intratumoral androgen synthesis, AR amplification and mutations, AR mRNA alternative splicing, increased expression/activity of AR-related transcription factors and coregulators. A deeper clarification of the expression and activities of the androgen/AR axis in the CRPC stage will likely lead to the identification of novel predictive biomarkers as well as to the improvement of the therapeutical options for this almost untreatable disease, in terms of precision medicine.
  • 138
  • 18 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Tendon and Ligament Repair with MSC-EVs
Tendon and ligament injury poses an increasingly large burden to society. With surgical repair and grafting susceptible to high failure rates, tissue engineering provides novel avenues for treatment.
  • 65
  • 25 Nov 2021
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