Topic Review
3D Bioprinting for Cancer Modeling and Personalized Medicine
Tumor cells evolve in a complex and heterogeneous environment composed of different cell types and an extracellular matrix. Current 2D culture methods are very limited in their ability to mimic the cancer cell environment. Various 3D models of cancer cells have been developed, notably in the form of spheroids/organoids, using scaffold or cancer-on-chip devices. However, these models have the disadvantage of not being able to precisely control the organization of multiple cell types in complex architecture and are sometimes not very reproducible in their production, and this is especially true for spheroids. Three-dimensional bioprinting can produce complex, multi-cellular, and reproducible constructs in which the matrix composition and rigidity can be adapted locally or globally to the tumor model studied. For these reasons, 3D bioprinting seems to be the technique of choice to mimic the tumor microenvironment in vivo as closely as possible. 
  • 64
  • 08 Apr 2022
Topic Review
3D Microenvironment Cell Culture in Snake Venom Research
Snake venoms are a natural biological source of bioactive compounds, mainly composed of proteins and peptides with specific pathophysiological functions. The diversity of protein families found in snake venoms is reflected by the range of targets and toxicological effects observed, and consequently, a wide variety of potential pharmacological activities. In this context, in vitro biomimetic models such as spheroid and organoid systems, which are three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models, enable extensive screening and identification of substances with pharmacological potential and the determination of the mechanisms underlying their activities.
  • 48
  • 01 Jul 2022
Topic Review
3D Organoids
The 3D organoid model system represents a powerful tool for capturing the physiology of the normal or neoplastic esophagus. These 3D organoids are easily manipulatable, require little patient material, and are amenable to medium- or high-throughput screening. While no studies have yet leveraged the 3D organoid system to characterize the functional consequences of microbiome alterations in esophageal neoplasia, this system has been applied to other cancer types.
  • 79
  • 11 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Adipose Tissue Immunometabolism
Adipose tissue is unique in terms of its immune effects on apoptotic cell clearance, as adipocyte apoptosis triggers inflammatory cytokine responses in macrophages, and is a potential inducer of adipose tissue inflammation. Classically, there are two types of adipose tissue in mammals: white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). Adipocytes of the WAT accumulate neutral lipids in a large droplet, whereas BAT adipocytes have multilocular lipid droplets and high lipolytic activity, and oxidize fatty acids into ATP, and generate heat.
  • 126
  • 24 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Adoptive Cell Immunotherapy (ACT)
Adoptive cell immunotherapy (ACT) is a promising approach to treat a variety of pathological states, including infections as well as both solid and hematologic cancers. Immune cells in ACT can be harvested from tumor resection/biopsy, from the patient’s own blood, or donated by a fully or partially human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched healthy donor. These cells are then injected into the patient after minimal or more extensive ex vivo manipulations. The oldest, and arguably still one of the most effective forms of ACT, is allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, which most often requires only minimal cell handling and primarily leverages immunogenetic disparities between donor and recipient to treat hematopoietic cancers 
  • 149
  • 30 Mar 2021
Topic Review
Advances of Microneedles in Biomedical Applications
A microneedle (MN) is a painless and minimally invasive drug delivery device initially developed in 1976. As microneedle technology evolves, microneedles with different shapes (cone and pyramid) and forms (solid, drug-coated, hollow, dissolvable and hydrogel-based microneedles) have been developed. 
  • 86
  • 18 Oct 2021
Topic Review
Alveolar Bone Regeneration and Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Mesenchymal stem cells/stromal cells (MSCs), which have been applied in implantology and periodontology. MSCs, with their multilineage differentiation potential (differentiation into osteocytes, chondrocytes, adipocytes, muscle cells, and even neurocytes) are widely available from various tissues sources.
  • 75
  • 17 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Ammonia and the Muscle on Hepatic Encephalopathy
The link between the presence of muscular alterations and hepatic encephalopathy (HE), both minimal and overt, has been deeply studied. The pathophysiological background supporting the relationship between muscle depletion, and HE is characterized by an imbalance between the capacity of muscle in ammonia metabolism and trafficking and the inability of the liver in removing ammonia through urea synthesis due to liver failure and/or the presence of porto-systemic shunts.
  • 66
  • 18 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Application of HS Containing Biomatrices for Neural Repair
The fine structure (sulfation position and density) of the HS side chains of perlecan is an important regulatory determinant in the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells in the niche environment in neural tissues. Interaction of HS with growth factors (FGF-2) and morphogens (Wnt, SHh) is also essential for the long-term viability of recycling stem cells and the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells that have escaped from quiescent recycling and along with interactions with niche ECM components regulates the development of stem cell lineages that attain migratory properties facilitating their participation in neural repair processes. The expression of HS biosynthetic enzymes in the niche and tissue environments also have important roles in determining the fine structure of HS and how it exerts these effects spatially and temporally in tissue development and neural repair processes and also has roles in the determination of synaptic specificity, axonal guidance, synapse development and synapse function.
  • 65
  • 18 May 2022
Topic Review
Applications about Single-Cell Printing
Single-cell analysis has become a powerful and indispensable tool in modern biological and medical research. Single-cell isolation is the key step for single-cell analysis. Single-cell printing could utilize various microfluidic technologies for single-cell isolation and analysis, such as droplet microfluidics, microwell arrays, and hydrodynamic traps. Single-cell printing shows several distinct advantages among the single-cell isolation techniques, such as precise deposition, high encapsulation efficiency, and easy recovery. With the development of single-cell printing in the past decade, various single-cell printing-based single-cell analyses and applications have been performed, ranging from single-cell array-based screening and single-cell-based mass spectroscopy to live three-dimensional tissue formation.
  • 83
  • 11 Feb 2022
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