Topic Review
Chronic Diabetic Wounds
With the global prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus steeply rising, instances of chronic, hard-healing, or non-healing diabetic wounds and ulcers are predicted to increase. The growing understanding of healing and regenerative mechanisms has elucidated critical regulators of this process, including key cellular and humoral components. Despite this, the management and successful treatment of diabetic wounds represents a significant therapeutic challenge. 
  • 165
  • 07 Apr 2021
Topic Review
HEK293 Cell Line
The HEK293 cell line has earned its place as a producer of biotherapeutics. In addition to its ease of growth in serum-free suspension culture and its amenability to transfection, this cell line’s most important attribute is its human origin, which makes it suitable to produce biologics intended for human use. At the present time, the growth and production properties of the HEK293 cell line are inferior to those of non-human cell lines, such as the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and the murine myeloma NSO cell lines. However, the modification of genes involved in cellular processes, such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, metabolism, glycosylation, secretion, and protein folding, in addition to bioprocess, media, and vector optimization, have greatly improved the performance of this cell line.
  • 158
  • 07 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Fracture-Healing Process
Fracture-healing is a complex multi-stage process that usually progresses flawlessly, resulting in restoration of bone architecture and function. Regrettably, however, a considerable number of fractures fail to heal, resulting in delayed unions or non-unions. This may significantly impact several aspects of a patient’s life.
  • 157
  • 27 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Adoptive Cell Immunotherapy (ACT)
Adoptive cell immunotherapy (ACT) is a promising approach to treat a variety of pathological states, including infections as well as both solid and hematologic cancers. Immune cells in ACT can be harvested from tumor resection/biopsy, from the patient’s own blood, or donated by a fully or partially human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched healthy donor. These cells are then injected into the patient after minimal or more extensive ex vivo manipulations. The oldest, and arguably still one of the most effective forms of ACT, is allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, which most often requires only minimal cell handling and primarily leverages immunogenetic disparities between donor and recipient to treat hematopoietic cancers 
  • 153
  • 30 Mar 2021
Topic Review
Interleukin-4 and Interleukin-13 Induced Atopic Dermatitis
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease associated with widespread barrier dysfunction and T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines. AD is an imbalance in the Th2 immune response where there is an increase in the gene expression levels of major Th2 cytokines during the acute phase.
  • 151
  • 07 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Microbes’ Roles in Wound Healing
Normal wound healing cascade is highly dynamic and has four distinct overlapping phases which involves several cellular and molecular interactions. It is known to be one of the most complicated processes in human body. The wound healing mechanism can be interrupted due to the involvement of several diseases that eventually develop to chronic wounds such as in diabetic foot ulcers. Infection is a common problem in chronic wound cause by microbes residing on the superficial layer of the skin. It is frequently resulting in impaired wound healing and patient morbidity and mortality. Antibiotic therapy and wound dressings are the main treatments to treat infected chronic wounds. However, the presence of polymicrobial infections, formation of bacterial biofilms and antibiotics resistance are the major challenges faced by healthcare providers to kill or eliminate the microbes from the wounds. Considering all the possible factors, more studies are needed to elucidate the role of microbes as well as the selection of suitable empirical antibiotics in reducing the infections and provide optimal healing in chronic wounds.  
  • 150
  • 23 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Microvascular Tissue Engineering
Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have come a long way in recent decades, but the lack of functioning vasculature is still a major obstacle preventing the development of thicker, physiologically relevant tissue constructs. A large part of this obstacle lies in the development of the vessels on a microscale—the microvasculature—that are crucial for oxygen and nutrient delivery. 
  • 150
  • 23 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Melanoma Modeling
Melanoma is a cancer with very poor survival rates, although its treatment has been revolutionized by targeted therapy and immunotherapy. It is a complex disease and here the melanoma complexity has been pointed out  as well as the active role of the tumor microenvironment in melanoma progression and its ability to escape to drug treatment. The recent efforts addressed to the development of ex-vivo micro-tissue models able to recapitulate the live conditions of melanoma cells in human patients have been outlined. In particular, the existing ex-vivo melanoma models are reported into the cover picture and include: two-dimensional cell growth in adherent cell culture in a plastic culture dish (a); multicellular melanoma spheroids (b); 3D Skin reconstruct (c); 3D organotypic melanoma spheroids skin model (d); Skin-on-chip (e); ex-vivo tissue slice (f). Further, the use of ex-vivo models as a novel approach for the researcher to investigate the mechanisms underlying tumor biology and immunotherapeutic resistance in metastatic melanoma has been discussed, as well as their high potential for the development of personalized medicine in melanoma treatment.
  • 147
  • 29 Mar 2022
Topic Review
The Androgen Axis in CRPC
Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying prostate cancer (PCa) progression towards its most aggressive, castration-resistant (CRPC) stage is urgently needed to improve the therapeutic options for this almost incurable pathology. Interestingly, CRPC is known to be characterized by a peculiar hormonal landscape. It is now well established that the androgen/androgen receptor (AR) axis is still active in CRPC cells. The persistent activity of this axis in PCa progression has been shown to be related to different mechanisms, such as: intratumoral androgen synthesis, AR amplification and mutations, AR mRNA alternative splicing, increased expression/activity of AR-related transcription factors and coregulators. A deeper clarification of the expression and activities of the androgen/AR axis in the CRPC stage will likely lead to the identification of novel predictive biomarkers as well as to the improvement of the therapeutical options for this almost untreatable disease, in terms of precision medicine.
  • 147
  • 18 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Neutrophils and Platelets: Immune Soldiers
Neutrophils and platelets exhibit a diverse repertoire of functions in thromboinflammatory conditions such as stroke. Neutrophils can enable, as well as resolve, cerebrovascular inflammation via many effector functions including neutrophil extracellular traps, serine proteases and reactive oxygen species, and pro-resolving endogenous molecules such as Annexin A1. Like neutrophils, platelets also engage in pro- as well as anti-inflammatory roles in regulating cerebrovascular inflammation. These anucleated cells are at the core of stroke pathogenesis and can trigger an ischemic event via adherence to the hypoxic cerebral endothelial cells culminating in aggregation and clot formation.
  • 143
  • 06 Jan 2022
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