Topic Review
The Biomechanics of Cartilage
Articular cartilage (AC) sheathes joint surfaces and minimizes friction in diarthrosis. The resident cell population, chondrocytes, are surrounded by an extracellular matrix and a multitude of proteins, which bestow their unique characteristics. AC is characterized by a zonal composition (superficial (tangential) zone, middle (transitional) zone, deep zone, calcified zone) with different mechanical properties. An overview is given about different testing (load tests) methods as well as different modeling approaches.
  • 259
  • 14 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Genome-Editing Systems in Rice Improvement
Food crop production and quality are two major attributes that ensure food security. Rice is one of the major sources of food that feeds half of the world’s population. Therefore, to feed about 10 billion people by 2050, there is a need to develop high-yielding grain quality of rice varieties, with greater pace. Although conventional and mutation breeding techniques have played a significant role in the development of desired varieties in the past, due to certain limitations, these techniques cannot fulfill the high demands for food in the present era. However, rice production and grain quality can be improved by employing new breeding techniques, such as genome editing tools (GETs), with high efficiency. These tools, including clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) systems, have revolutionized rice breeding. The protocol of CRISPR/Cas9 systems technology, and its variants, are the most reliable and efficient, and have been established in rice crops. New GETs, such as CRISPR/Cas12, and base editors, have also been applied to rice to improve it. Recombinases and prime editing tools have the potential to make edits more precisely and efficiently. 
  • 193
  • 13 Jul 2021
Topic Review
IFN Signaling in Neutrophils
Interferons (IFNs) are induced by viruses and are the main regulators of the host antiviral response. They balance tissue tolerance and immune resistance against viral challenges.
  • 172
  • 26 May 2021
Topic Review
Zinc Transport
Zinc is a micronutrient involved in many fundamental roles that are vital for routine bodily functions. A tight control of its concentration, however, is necessary to ensure balance inside the cells. Zinc transporters are thus essential to maintain cellular homeostasis.
  • 144
  • 25 Mar 2021
Topic Review
Glyoxal-Crosslinked Chitosan/Gelatin Hydrogel
The clinical application of human platelet lysate (HPL) holds promise for tissue regeneration, and the development of an efficient vehicle for its delivery is desired. Chitosan-based hydrogels are potential candidates, but they often exhibit weak mechanical properties. In this study, a chitosan/gelatin (CS-GE) hydrogel crosslinked by glyoxal was fabricated for sustained release of HPL. After an ideal glyoxal concentration was determined, we further characterized the crosslinked CS-GE hydrogels encapsulated with different amounts of HPL. The HPL-incorporated hydrogel was shown to significantly promote the proliferation of Hs68 cells and the migration of HUVECs. Moreover, the release pattern of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) from hydrogel was examined in vitro, demonstrating a sustained release profile of the growth factors. Finally, the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay revealed that HPL encapsulation in the hydrogel significantly stimulated angiogenesis in ovo. These results demonstrate the great potential of the crosslinked CS-GE hydrogel to serve as an effective delivery system for HPL to promote tissue regeneration. 
  • 128
  • 23 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition and Aging
Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) was first discovered during the transition of cells from the primitive streak during embryogenesis in chicks. 
  • 127
  • 27 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Fracture-Healing Process
Fracture-healing is a complex multi-stage process that usually progresses flawlessly, resulting in restoration of bone architecture and function. Regrettably, however, a considerable number of fractures fail to heal, resulting in delayed unions or non-unions. This may significantly impact several aspects of a patient’s life.
  • 124
  • 27 Sep 2021
Topic Review
MIP-Based Drug Delivery Systems
Despite the tremendous efforts made in the past decades, severe side/toxic effects and poor bioavailability still represent the main challenges that hinder the clinical translation of drug molecules. This has turned the attention of investigators towards drug delivery vehicles that provide a localized and controlled drug delivery. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as novel and versatile drug delivery vehicles have been widely studied in recent years due to the advantages of selective recognition, enhanced drug loading, sustained release, and robustness in harsh conditions. This review highlights the design and development of strategies undertaken for MIPs used as drug delivery vehicles involving different drug delivery mechanisms, such as rate-programmed, stimuli-responsive and active targeting, published during the course of the past five years. 
  • 120
  • 01 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Adoptive Cell Immunotherapy (ACT)
Adoptive cell immunotherapy (ACT) is a promising approach to treat a variety of pathological states, including infections as well as both solid and hematologic cancers. Immune cells in ACT can be harvested from tumor resection/biopsy, from the patient’s own blood, or donated by a fully or partially human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched healthy donor. These cells are then injected into the patient after minimal or more extensive ex vivo manipulations. The oldest, and arguably still one of the most effective forms of ACT, is allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, which most often requires only minimal cell handling and primarily leverages immunogenetic disparities between donor and recipient to treat hematopoietic cancers 
  • 118
  • 30 Mar 2021
Topic Review
Autonomy in Stem Cell-Derived Embryoids
The experimental production of complex structures resembling mammalian embryos (e.g., blastoids, gastruloids) from pluripotent stem cells in vitro has become a booming research field. Since some of these embryoid models appear to reach a degree of complexity that may come close to viability, a broad discussion has set in with the aim to arrive at a consensus on the ethical implications with regard to acceptability of the use of this technology with human cells. The present text focuses on developmental autonomy of embryoids which is an aspect of great ethical relevance and must receive increased attention during the preparation of new legal regulations, but which has not been included yet in the recently issued ISSCR Guidelines.  
  • 117
  • 10 Nov 2021
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