Topic Review
Starter Cultures in Foods
Starter cultures can be defined as preparations with a large number of cells that include a single type or a mixture of two or more microorganisms that are added to foods in order to take advantage of the compounds or products derived from their metabolism or enzymatic activity.
  • 3293
  • 19 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Anthrozoology
Anthrozoology is the interdisciplinary study of relationships between humans and other animals.
  • 594
  • 21 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Zinc and Dog Food
Zinc is an essential trace element, required for enzymatic, structural, and regulatory functions. As body reserves are scarce, an adequate zinc status relies on proper dietary supply and efficient homeostasis. Several biomarkers have been proposed that enable the detection of poor zinc status, but more sensitive and specific ones are needed to detect marginal deficiencies. The zinc content of commercial dry dog foods has great variability, with a more frequent non-compliance with the maximum authorized limit than with the nutritional requirement. The bioavailability of dietary zinc also plays a crucial role in ensuring an adequate zinc status. 
  • 528
  • 21 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Chordae tendineae in Animal Models
Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is the most common canine heart disease in which, among other things, chordae tendineae rupture occurs. The Chordae tendineae (CT) are part of the atrioventricular apparatus. They are mainly responsible for the mechanical functions of heart valves.  In our study we performed biomechanical and histopathological examination of CT in order to better understand the functioning of the valvular apparatus. It is clinically relevant  to begin further studies about biomarkers suggesting an episode of CT rupture, as such an episode leads to acute pulmonary oedema and worsens the clinical status of the patient.
  • 404
  • 24 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Veterinarians as Animal Welfare Experts
Veterinarians are animal health experts, and they have been conferred a leading role as experts in animal welfare. This expectation of veterinarians as welfare experts appears to stem from their training in veterinary medicine as well as professional contributions to welfare-relevant policy and law. Veterinarians are ideally situated to act as animal welfare experts by virtue of their core work with animals and potential influence over owners, their roles in policy development, compliance, and monitoring, and as educators of future veterinarians.
  • 284
  • 17 Dec 2021
Topic Review
The Dog–Owner Relationship
The Cat/Dog–Owner Relationship Scale (C/DORS) is a questionnaire aimed to assess specific aspects of the pet–owner relationship. While the entire scale can be administered to both dog and cat owners, its validity and reliability have never been tested on dogs. Furthermore, validity and reliability of a scale may change depending on the respondents’ language and cultural background. Since the C/DORS was developed in English, we aimed to translate it into Italian and assess its validity and reliability on a sample of Italian dog owners. The response scale was modified to improve the variability of the owners’ responses. Overall, validity and reliability were good. The scale had the same three-factor structure (Perceived Emotional Closeness = PEC, Pet–Owner Interactions = POI, Perceived Costs = PC) reported for the original English version, although some items were removed because they did not fit the statistical model. The PEC subscale had the highest correlations with the subscales of the Lexington Attachment to Pets Scale. Finally, being a student owner was associated with higher PEC and POI scores. Conversely, owning a dog with behavioural problems was associated with lower PEC and higher PC. Owners whose dogs lived outdoors reported lower POI. Pet dog owners reported higher PEC than AAI dog owners.
  • 261
  • 17 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Cinnamon and Poultry Gut Health
Plant bioactive compounds, such as phytochemicals, in poultry diets, are gaining popularity due to their potential antioxidant and anti-microbial activities. Phytogenic feed additives (PFAs) have emerged as natural alternatives to antibiotic growth promotors and have great potential in the poultry industry. In recent years, cinnamon (one of the most widely used spices) has attracted attention from researchers as a natural product with numerous health benefits for poultry. The essential oils in cinnamon, in particular, are of interest because of their antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and hypocholesterolaemic effects, in addition to their ability to stimulate digestive enzymes in the gut. This review mainly emphasizes the potential impact of cinnamon as a natural feed additive on overall gut health, nutrient digestibility, blood biochemical profile, gene expression, gut microbiota and immune response.
  • 234
  • 26 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Capripoxvirus Infections in Ruminants
Lumpy skin disease, sheeppox, and goatpox are notifiable diseases of cattle, sheep, and goats, respectively, caused by viruses of the Capripoxvirus genus. They are responsible for both direct and indirect financial losses. These losses arise through animal mortality, morbidity cost of vaccinations, and constraints to animals and animal products’ trade. Control and eradication of capripoxviruses depend on early detection of outbreaks, vector control, strict animal movement, and vaccination which remains the most effective means of control. To date, live attenuated vaccines are widely used; however, conferred protection remains controversial. Many vaccines have been associated with adverse reactions and incomplete protection in sheep, goats, and cattle. Many combination- and recombinant-based vaccines have also been developed. 
  • 224
  • 07 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Genital Tract Microbiome of Cattle
The term microbiota refers to the entire population of microorganisms that colonizes a particular location and includes not just bacteria, but also other microbes such as fungi, archaea, viruses, and protozoans. Cows have bacteria inhabiting the uterus even before calving and establish a unique endometrial microbiome within 20 min of calving where the microbiome is similar between cows that develop metritis and cows without endometritis until at least the second day postpartum.
  • 224
  • 23 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Influence of Probiotic Supplementation on Health of Dogs
Probiotics are live microorganisms that deliver health benefits to the host when administrated in an adequate amount. The possible mechanism behind probiotics’ beneficial effects could be their positive regulation of the host’s intestinal microbiota. Probiotics are reported to have therapeutic properties against canine GI and other diseases. 
  • 203
  • 16 Dec 2021
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