Topic Review
Wolf Population Management
Wolf population management should be guided by knowledge on abundance, demographic and genetic structure, and reproduction. Such information is relevant both locally and internationally if populations of protected species inhabit areas shared by several states.
  • 142
  • 17 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Urban Wildlife Conservation and Communication under COVID-19
Most ecosystems are increasingly being degraded and reduced by human activities at the local and global scales. In contrast, urban environments are expanding as increasing portions of humanity move into cities.  The relevance of urban wildlife consumption and the trade between urban and rural areas and among cities have received growing attention in light of the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • 73
  • 16 Aug 2022
Topic Review
The Role of Phytoplankton in Carbon Dioxide Fixation
Marine phytoplankton account for more than half of the carbon dioxide fixation of Earth. The export of carbon is highest at the photic zone of the ocean, which is dominated by phytoplankton. The term phytoplankton comes from the Greek words phyto (plants) and plankton (wanderers or drifters). Plankton can also be zooplanktons that feed on phytoplankton and release fecal pellets that are made of dissolved carbon particles.
  • 303
  • 13 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Status and Needs of Shark Conservation
The expanding shark fin market has resulted in intensive global shark fishing. With 90% of teleost fish stocks over-exploited, sharks have become the most lucrative target. As predators, they have high ecological value, are sensitive to fishing pressure, and are in decline, but the secretive nature of the fin trade and difficulties obtaining relevant data, obscure their true status. In consumer countries, shark fin is a luxury item and rich consumers pay high prices with little interest in sustainability or legal trade. Thus, market demand will continue to fuel the hunt for sharks and those accessible to fishing fleets are increasingly endangered. Current legal protections are not working, as exemplified by the case of the shortfin mako shark. Claims that sharks can be sustainably fished under these circumstances are misguided. To avert a catastrophic collapse across the planet’s aquatic ecosystems, sharks and their habitats must be given effective protection. 
  • 63
  • 21 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Soil Fungal Diversity of the Aguarongo Andean Forest
Fungi represent an essential component of ecosystems, functioning as decomposers and biotrophs, and they are one of the most diverse groups of Eukarya. In the tropics, many species are unknown. In this work, high-throughput DNA sequencing was used to discover the biodiversity of soil fungi in the Aguarongo forest reserve, one of the richest biodiversity hotspots in Ecuador. The rDNA metabarcoding analysis revealed the presence of seven phyla: Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Mortierellomycota, Mucoromycota, Glomeromycota, Chytridiomycota, and Monoblepharomycota. A total of 440 identified species were recorded. They mainly belonged to Ascomycota (263) and Basidiomycota (127). In Mortierellomycota, 12 species were recorded, among which Podila verticillata is extremely frequent and represents the dominant species in the entire mycobiota of Aguarongo. 
  • 207
  • 20 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Sesame Production Constraints and Breeding
Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.; 2n = 2x = 26) belongs to the family Pedaliaceae. It is a predominantly self-pollinating crop.
  • 154
  • 27 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Seal Lice
Sucking lice (Phthiraptera: Anoplura) are permanent, obligate, and hematophagous ectoparasites of mammals. Throughout their evolutionary history, they have established associations and co-evolved with mammals, being present in most Mammalian genera. Seal lice is the common name given to a group of sucking lice belonging to the family Echinophthiriidae (Phthiraptera: Anoplura). This group characterises by infesting hosts with an aquatic lifestyle, i.e. pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walrus) and the North American river otter.
  • 221
  • 14 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Restoring Mexican Tropical Dry Forests
Deforestation is the dominant threat to tropical dry forests (TDFs) in Mexico. Its causes include agriculture, tourism, and mining. In some cases, unassisted forest regeneration is sufficient to return diverse forest cover to a site, but in other cases, changes in land use are so severe that active restoration is required to reintroduce tree cover. 
  • 126
  • 15 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Reintroduction Projects of the Przewalski’s Horse
  1 State Key Laboratory of Oasis and Desert Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, China 2 Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China; 3 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China 4 College of Biology and Geography Sciences,Yili Normal University, Yining 835000, China; * Correspondence: (M.A.T.); (Z.J.)   Abstract Przewalski’s horse (Equus ferus przewalskii), also known as Przewalski’s wild horse, the Asian wild horse, Mongolian wild horse, Takhi or Junggar Horses, is classified by the IUCN as Extinct in the Wild (EW) as no Przewalski’s horse has been seen in the wild since 1969, despite efforts to find them in Mongolia or China. The wild horse has been successfully saved from extinction by captive breeding projects outside the historic range. Although multiple studies were conducted, the main problems such as loss of founder genes, inbreeding depression, hybridization with domestic horses, high morbidity and mortality, and a lack of reliable prevention strategies and treatment limitations of these problems are still unresolved and require further scientific effort. This review aims to increase understanding of the scientific attributes that make the survival of the species possible and how these attributes can be useful for appropriate design of conservation and management strategies oriented to improve the viability of the existing population of the species. Cite Turghan, M.A.; Jiang, Z.; Niu, Z. Reintroduction Projects of the Przewalski’s Horse. Encyclopedia. Available online: (accessed on 01 December 2022).
  • 47
  • 01 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Raptor Conservation
Raptor conservation may be combined with ecological research to support conservation initiatives. Raptor conservation is a service from human societies to ecosystems (i.e., societies services to ecosystems).
  • 206
  • 01 Jul 2021
  • Page
  • of
  • 5