Topic Review
Mechanisms and Impact of Biofilms
Biofilms comprising aggregates of microorganisms or multicellular communities have been a major issue as they cause resistance against antimicrobial agents and biofouling. To date, numerous biofilm-forming microorganisms have been identified, which have been shown to result in major effects including biofouling and biofilm-related infections. Quorum sensing (which describes the cell communication within biofilms) plays a vital role in the regulation of biofilm formation and its virulence. As such, elucidating the various mechanisms responsible for biofilm resistance (including quorum sensing) will assist in developing strategies to inhibit and control the formation of biofilms in nature. Employing biological control measures (such as the use of bioactive compounds) in targeting biofilms is of great interest since they naturally possess antimicrobial activity among other favorable attributes and can also possibly act as potent antibiofilm agents.
  • 177
  • 13 Oct 2021
Topic Review
Herpesvirus Infection in Strix Owls
The herpesvirus partial DNA polymerase gene was detected using polymerase chain reaction in oropharyngeal swabs of 16 out of 170 owls examined that were captured in or near nest boxes. Herpesvirus was detected in Ural owls (Strix uralensis), in both adults and young, but not in tawny owls (Strix aluco). In yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis), as the main prey of tawny owls and Ural owls in the area, herpesvirus was detected in the organs of 2 out of 40 mice captured at the same locations as the owls. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the herpesvirus sequences detected in the Ural owls differed from the herpesvirus sequences detected in the yellow-necked mice. The results indicate that herpesvirus infection exists in the breeding wild Ural owl population. However, herpesvirus-infected owls did not show any clinical or productivity deviances and, based on a phylogenetic comparison of detected herpesvirus sequences and sequences obtained from Genbank database, it seems that mice and other rodents are not the source of owl infections. The most probable transmission pathway is intraspecific, especially from adults to their chicks, but the origin of herpesvirus in owls remains to be investigated.
  • 168
  • 22 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Butterfly Community Diversity in the Qinling Mountains
The Qinling Mountains are one of the oldest mountain ranges in China and a global biodiversity research and conservation hotspot. However, there is a lack of systematic research and survey of butterfly diversity in this region. Based on the butterfly taxa, combined with the changes in natural climate, altitude gradient and season in the Qinling Mountains, the butterfly diversity and community structure changes in 12 counties in the middle Qinling Mountains were analyzed by transect surveys and platform data analyses. A total of 9626 butterflies were observed, belonging to 427 species across 175 genera and 5 families. The species richness on the southern slope of the Qinling Mountains is higher than that on the northern slope.
  • 157
  • 17 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Seal Lice
Sucking lice (Phthiraptera: Anoplura) are permanent, obligate, and hematophagous ectoparasites of mammals. Throughout their evolutionary history, they have established associations and co-evolved with mammals, being present in most Mammalian genera. Seal lice is the common name given to a group of sucking lice belonging to the family Echinophthiriidae (Phthiraptera: Anoplura). This group characterises by infesting hosts with an aquatic lifestyle, i.e. pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walrus) and the North American river otter.
  • 156
  • 14 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Domestication Process of African Vigna Species
Legumes are one of the most economically important and biodiverse families in plants recognised as the basis to develop functional foods. Among these, the Vigna genus stands out as a good representative because of its relatively recent African origin as well as its outstanding potential. Africa is a great biodiversity centre in which a great number of species are spread, but only three of them, Vigna unguiculata, Vigna subterranea and Vigna vexillata, were successfully domesticated.
  • 143
  • 04 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Bagarius bagarius (Hamilton, 1822)
B. bagarius (Hamilton, 1822) is a fish species that has huge potential as food and game fish in Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, and Nepal, but is encountering the threat of extinction in Bangladesh and throughout the world, which can be inferred from its alarming conservation status in Bangladesh as well as throughout the world. It is known as “Baghair” or “Bagh mach” in Bangladesh. In Bangla, the term “Bagh” refers to a tiger. 
  • 143
  • 22 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Soil Fungal Diversity of the Aguarongo Andean Forest
Fungi represent an essential component of ecosystems, functioning as decomposers and biotrophs, and they are one of the most diverse groups of Eukarya. In the tropics, many species are unknown. In this work, high-throughput DNA sequencing was used to discover the biodiversity of soil fungi in the Aguarongo forest reserve, one of the richest biodiversity hotspots in Ecuador. The rDNA metabarcoding analysis revealed the presence of seven phyla: Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Mortierellomycota, Mucoromycota, Glomeromycota, Chytridiomycota, and Monoblepharomycota. A total of 440 identified species were recorded. They mainly belonged to Ascomycota (263) and Basidiomycota (127). In Mortierellomycota, 12 species were recorded, among which Podila verticillata is extremely frequent and represents the dominant species in the entire mycobiota of Aguarongo. 
  • 142
  • 20 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Beavers, Bugs and Chemistry
The North American beaver (Castor canadensis Kuhl) and cottonwoods (Populus spp.) are foundation species, the interactions of which define a much larger community and affect a threatened riparian habitat type.
  • 138
  • 04 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Raptor Conservation
Raptor conservation may be combined with ecological research to support conservation initiatives. Raptor conservation is a service from human societies to ecosystems (i.e., societies services to ecosystems).
  • 134
  • 01 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Invasion of African Clarias gariepinus in Bangladesh
The African catfish Clarias gariepinus has been introduced for aquaculture in Bangladesh due to the scarcity of indigenous C. batrachus fingerlings. The African catfish Clarias gariepinus is a highly carnivorous species and predates small indigenous freshwater fishes when escaping into natural water bodies. However, the government of Bangladesh has banned the farming of C. gariepinus due to the carnivorous nature of this species. The introduction of C. gariepinus caused native biodiversity loss due to its predatory nature.
  • 133
  • 25 Feb 2022
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