Topic Review
Raptor Conservation
Raptor conservation may be combined with ecological research to support conservation initiatives. Raptor conservation is a service from human societies to ecosystems (i.e., societies services to ecosystems).
  • 209
  • 01 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Rangeland Biodiversity and Climate Variability
Rangeland biodiversity related closely with climate variability. Rainfall plays an important role in arid rangeland restoration. Under favorable conditions, one-year grazing exclusion considerably enhanced species richness and evenness diversity compared to longer resting durations under dry to average rainfall conditions. The decision to how long livestock grazing exclusion would last should not be decided upfront as it depends on the climatic and the site-specific conditions.
  • 170
  • 27 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Pollution Biomarkers for Marine Biodiversity
Marine biodiversity is threatened by several anthropogenic pressures. Pollution deriving from the discharge of chemical contaminants in the sea represents one of the main threats to the marine environment, influencing the health of organisms, their ability to recover their homeostatic status, and in turn endangering biodiversity. Molecular and cellular responses to chemical pollutants, known as biomarkers, are effect-based methodologies useful for detecting exposure and for assessing the effects of pollutants on biota in environmental monitoring. Pollution biomarkers can be useful tools for monitoring and assessment of pollution threats to marine biodiversity, both in the environmental quality monitoring of protected areas and the assessment of the health status of species at risk.
  • 223
  • 15 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Parent Origin and Wolves' Conflict
We researched whether the behavior of young migrating wolves (loners), after they leave the pack, resembles parent pack (PP) behavior. Fourteen loners entering the Netherlands could be identified and genetically linked to their PPs. Like their PPs, some young wolves killed sheep and were near humans, others killed sheep and did not approach humans, while two loners were unproblematic, they did not kill sheep nor were they in proximity to humans. Thus, the PP behavior did predict loner’s behavior and human-wildlife conflicts may be similar between young wolves and their PPs. However, conflicts need not arise. To achieve that, new prevention methods are proposed to teach wolves in the PP not to approach sheep and humans. As a result, new generations may not be problematic when leaving the PP.
  • 380
  • 01 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Opuntia (Cactaceae; Opuntioideae) Flower-Visiting Insects
Opuntia species are cacti with high ecological, economic and conservation interest in semiarid environments, particularly in Mexico. Despite the economic and cultural importance of Opuntia, there is a significant lack of knowledge about the flower-visiting insects and their taxonomic identity. Although some Opuntia species could be visited by birds such as hummingbirds, the most dominant taxonomic group of pollinators are the insects. 
  • 358
  • 19 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Nitrogen in Wetlands
Wetlands are viable sinks for nitrate and have also been identified as a source of nitrous oxide, a product of two microbially regulated processes: nitrification and denitrification. Anthropogenic expansion of nitrogen is a leading cause of the eutrophication of water bodies and may also contribute to the deterioration of the ozone layer in the stratosphere. Wetlands ameliorate the quality of water percolating through them, by retaining nutrients and sequestering carbon, and simultaneously enhancing the flora and fauna diversity of these landscapes. Among the many services these wetlands provide, they also alleviate nitrate pollution by attenuating reactive nitrogen from agricultural drainage and ensure the effective reclamation of the wastewater. 
  • 681
  • 24 May 2021
Topic Review
Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum L.)
Milk thistle (Silybum marianum(L.) Gaertn.) is a multipurpose crop suitable to Mediterranean environments.
  • 145
  • 07 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Medicago tunetana (Murb.) A.W. Hill
Medicago tunetana (Murb.) A.W. Hill, a perennial endemic pastoral species, grows at the canopy of Pinus halepensis Mill. plantations forest of the Tunisian Dorsal. Although M. tunetana is an interested pasture legume with its abiotic stress tolerance  rhizome production, it is a rare species and threatened to disappear because of overgrazing. Whereas, it could contribute in the agro-pastoral systems development in its native regions of Tunisian ridge.
  • 262
  • 22 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Mechanisms and Impact of Biofilms
Biofilms comprising aggregates of microorganisms or multicellular communities have been a major issue as they cause resistance against antimicrobial agents and biofouling. To date, numerous biofilm-forming microorganisms have been identified, which have been shown to result in major effects including biofouling and biofilm-related infections. Quorum sensing (which describes the cell communication within biofilms) plays a vital role in the regulation of biofilm formation and its virulence. As such, elucidating the various mechanisms responsible for biofilm resistance (including quorum sensing) will assist in developing strategies to inhibit and control the formation of biofilms in nature. Employing biological control measures (such as the use of bioactive compounds) in targeting biofilms is of great interest since they naturally possess antimicrobial activity among other favorable attributes and can also possibly act as potent antibiofilm agents.
  • 249
  • 13 Oct 2021
Topic Review
List of Polychaete Worms of South Africa
The list of polychaete worms of South Africa is a list of species that form a part of the class Polychaeta (Phylum Annelida) fauna of South Africa. The list follows the SANBI listing. 
  • 64
  • 08 Nov 2022
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