Topic Review
Antimicrobial Mediterranean Wild Edible Plants
Mediterranean wild edible plants (MWEPs) and their antimicrobial properties have been known from ancient times, and nowadays, a growing number of people have rediscovered them as natural remedies for common infections. One of the problems concerning their use is the heterogeneity of the protocols used to extract and analyze the properties of their active principles; such heterogeneity still marks the overall set of scientific studies on MWEPs, not to mention the enormous heterogeneity that characterizes the properties of plants at the outset. We reviewed the current literature on medicinal value of Mediterranean native edible plants trying to emphasize both the weaknesses and the opportunities of these plants. The majority of the reviewed MWEPs can inhibit both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, and fungi.
  • 270
  • 24 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Medicago tunetana (Murb.) A.W. Hill
Medicago tunetana (Murb.) A.W. Hill, a perennial endemic pastoral species, grows at the canopy of Pinus halepensis Mill. plantations forest of the Tunisian Dorsal. Although M. tunetana is an interested pasture legume with its abiotic stress tolerance  rhizome production, it is a rare species and threatened to disappear because of overgrazing. Whereas, it could contribute in the agro-pastoral systems development in its native regions of Tunisian ridge.
  • 262
  • 22 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Herpesvirus Infection in Strix Owls
The herpesvirus partial DNA polymerase gene was detected using polymerase chain reaction in oropharyngeal swabs of 16 out of 170 owls examined that were captured in or near nest boxes. Herpesvirus was detected in Ural owls (Strix uralensis), in both adults and young, but not in tawny owls (Strix aluco). In yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis), as the main prey of tawny owls and Ural owls in the area, herpesvirus was detected in the organs of 2 out of 40 mice captured at the same locations as the owls. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the herpesvirus sequences detected in the Ural owls differed from the herpesvirus sequences detected in the yellow-necked mice. The results indicate that herpesvirus infection exists in the breeding wild Ural owl population. However, herpesvirus-infected owls did not show any clinical or productivity deviances and, based on a phylogenetic comparison of detected herpesvirus sequences and sequences obtained from Genbank database, it seems that mice and other rodents are not the source of owl infections. The most probable transmission pathway is intraspecific, especially from adults to their chicks, but the origin of herpesvirus in owls remains to be investigated.
  • 261
  • 22 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Mechanisms and Impact of Biofilms
Biofilms comprising aggregates of microorganisms or multicellular communities have been a major issue as they cause resistance against antimicrobial agents and biofouling. To date, numerous biofilm-forming microorganisms have been identified, which have been shown to result in major effects including biofouling and biofilm-related infections. Quorum sensing (which describes the cell communication within biofilms) plays a vital role in the regulation of biofilm formation and its virulence. As such, elucidating the various mechanisms responsible for biofilm resistance (including quorum sensing) will assist in developing strategies to inhibit and control the formation of biofilms in nature. Employing biological control measures (such as the use of bioactive compounds) in targeting biofilms is of great interest since they naturally possess antimicrobial activity among other favorable attributes and can also possibly act as potent antibiofilm agents.
  • 249
  • 13 Oct 2021
Topic Review
Bagarius bagarius (Hamilton, 1822)
B. bagarius (Hamilton, 1822) is a fish species that has huge potential as food and game fish in Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, and Nepal, but is encountering the threat of extinction in Bangladesh and throughout the world, which can be inferred from its alarming conservation status in Bangladesh as well as throughout the world. It is known as “Baghair” or “Bagh mach” in Bangladesh. In Bangla, the term “Bagh” refers to a tiger. 
  • 233
  • 22 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Seal Lice
Sucking lice (Phthiraptera: Anoplura) are permanent, obligate, and hematophagous ectoparasites of mammals. Throughout their evolutionary history, they have established associations and co-evolved with mammals, being present in most Mammalian genera. Seal lice is the common name given to a group of sucking lice belonging to the family Echinophthiriidae (Phthiraptera: Anoplura). This group characterises by infesting hosts with an aquatic lifestyle, i.e. pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walrus) and the North American river otter.
  • 227
  • 14 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Pollution Biomarkers for Marine Biodiversity
Marine biodiversity is threatened by several anthropogenic pressures. Pollution deriving from the discharge of chemical contaminants in the sea represents one of the main threats to the marine environment, influencing the health of organisms, their ability to recover their homeostatic status, and in turn endangering biodiversity. Molecular and cellular responses to chemical pollutants, known as biomarkers, are effect-based methodologies useful for detecting exposure and for assessing the effects of pollutants on biota in environmental monitoring. Pollution biomarkers can be useful tools for monitoring and assessment of pollution threats to marine biodiversity, both in the environmental quality monitoring of protected areas and the assessment of the health status of species at risk.
  • 223
  • 15 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Domestication Process of African Vigna Species
Legumes are one of the most economically important and biodiverse families in plants recognised as the basis to develop functional foods. Among these, the Vigna genus stands out as a good representative because of its relatively recent African origin as well as its outstanding potential. Africa is a great biodiversity centre in which a great number of species are spread, but only three of them, Vigna unguiculata, Vigna subterranea and Vigna vexillata, were successfully domesticated.
  • 213
  • 04 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Raptor Conservation
Raptor conservation may be combined with ecological research to support conservation initiatives. Raptor conservation is a service from human societies to ecosystems (i.e., societies services to ecosystems).
  • 210
  • 01 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Soil Fungal Diversity of the Aguarongo Andean Forest
Fungi represent an essential component of ecosystems, functioning as decomposers and biotrophs, and they are one of the most diverse groups of Eukarya. In the tropics, many species are unknown. In this work, high-throughput DNA sequencing was used to discover the biodiversity of soil fungi in the Aguarongo forest reserve, one of the richest biodiversity hotspots in Ecuador. The rDNA metabarcoding analysis revealed the presence of seven phyla: Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Mortierellomycota, Mucoromycota, Glomeromycota, Chytridiomycota, and Monoblepharomycota. A total of 440 identified species were recorded. They mainly belonged to Ascomycota (263) and Basidiomycota (127). In Mortierellomycota, 12 species were recorded, among which Podila verticillata is extremely frequent and represents the dominant species in the entire mycobiota of Aguarongo. 
  • 210
  • 20 Dec 2021
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