Topic Review
miRNAs in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Associated Diagnostics
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), classified primarily between Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, is a collection of chronic gastrointestinal inflammatory conditions that cause multiple complications because of systemic alterations in the immune response. IBD is currently diagnosed through a multitude of different assessments including clinical history, radiology, endoscopy, colonoscopy, and histology. Diagnostic challenges remain in differentiating between UC and CD when lesions are solely limited to the colon and in differentiating between IBD and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Endoscopy represents the main method of differentiation between organic IBD, and more functional IBS disorder though inflammatory markers such as TNF-α and calprotectin has also been used. miRNAs are found to be stable in peripheral blood, saliva, and feces and have been suggested as diagnostic biomarkers of IBD. There is also research indicating that miRNAs can serve as sensitive and specific biomarkers for disease onset, prognosis, and remission.
  • 21
  • 19 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Potassium Binders for Optimizing Therapies in Heart Failure
Heart failure (HF) is a worrisome cardiac pandemic with a negative prognostic impact on the overall survival of individuals. International guidelines recommend up-titration of standardized therapies in order to reduce symptoms, hospitalization rates, and cardiac death. Hyperkalemia (HK) has been identified in 3–18% of HF patients from randomized controlled trials and over 25% of HF patients in the “real world” setting. Pharmacological treatments and/or cardio-renal syndrome, as well as chronic kidney disease may be responsible for HK in HF patients. These conditions can prevent the upgrade of pharmacological treatments, thus, negatively impacting on the overall prognosis of patients. Potassium binders may be the best option in patients with HK in order to reduce serum concentrations of K+ and to promote correct upgrades of therapies.
  • 28
  • 16 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Transcriptional Regulation of the Hippo Pathway
Hippo signaling pathway is a key modulator of tissue growth with widespread implications in organ development, cell growth, regeneration, and stem cell function.
  • 56
  • 15 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Dostarlimab (JEMPERLI) is a PD-1 monoclonal antibody for the treatment of adult patients, with mismatch repair deficient (dMMR), recurrent or advanced endometrial cancer that has progressed on or following prior therapy with a platinum-containing regimen. As determined by an FDA-approved test this indication was granted rapid approval based on the rate of tumor response and the duration of the response. Continued approval for this indication is conditioned on further confirmatory trials demonstrating and documenting clinical benefit.
  • 25
  • 11 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Physiological Contributors to Sensitive Skin Syndrome
Sensitive Skin Syndrome (SSS) has been the subject of intense research. Although certain phenotypes are more susceptible, anyone can suffer from SSS and this condition can manifest in all anatomic sites. A number of physiological differences have been identified in individuals with SSS.
  • 32
  • 10 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Pathogenesis of FGF23-Related Hypophosphatemic Diseases
Since phosphate is indispensable for skeletal mineralization, chronic hypophosphatemia causes rickets and osteomalacia. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), which is mainly produced by osteocytes in bone, functions as the central regulator of phosphate metabolism by increasing the renal excretion of phosphate and suppressing the production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. The excessive action of FGF23 results in hypophosphatemic diseases, which include a number of genetic disorders such as X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH) and tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO). Phosphate-regulating gene homologous to endopeptidase on the X chromosome (PHEX), dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1), ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase-1, and family with sequence similarity 20c, the inactivating variants of which are responsible for FGF23-related hereditary rickets/osteomalacia, are highly expressed in osteocytes, similar to FGF23, suggesting that they are local negative regulators of FGF23. Autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR) is caused by cleavage-resistant variants of FGF23, and iron deficiency increases serum levels of FGF23 and the manifestation of symptoms in ADHR. Enhanced FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling in osteocytes is suggested to be involved in the overproduction of FGF23 in XLH and autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets type 1, which are caused by the inactivation of PHEX and DMP1, respectively. TIO is caused by the overproduction of FGF23 by phosphaturic tumors, which are often positive for FGFR. FGF23-related hypophosphatemia may also be associated with McCune-Albright syndrome, linear sebaceous nevus syndrome, and the intravenous administration of iron. 
  • 33
  • 09 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Architecture and Composition of the Intestinal Flora
Intestinal microorganisms are composed of bacteria, archaea, eukaryotes, and viruses, and more than 99% of them are bacteria. Approximately 1014 bacteria are known to constitute the intestinal flora in the adult gut, and this number is 10 times the number of human somatic cells.
  • 61
  • 05 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Early Life Stress, Oxytocin System, and Obesity
Obesity disease results from a dysfunctional modulation of the energy balance whose master regulator is the central nervous system. Consistently, the prevalence of obesity is higher among individuals who experienced early life stress (ELS). Oxytocin, a hypothalamic neurohormone, regulates the energy balance and modulates social, emotional, and eating behaviors, exerting both central and peripheral actions. Oxytocin closely cooperates with leptin in regulating energy homeostasis. Based on the available data, alterations in the oxytocin system may in part mediate the ELS-induced susceptibility to obesity. 
  • 130
  • 05 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Body Fluid Biomarkers in Alzheimer’s Disease
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an irreversibly progressive neurodegenerative disease afflicting the elderly, accompanied by devastating cognitive and memory impairment caused by characteristic neuronal and synaptic loss and cortical and hippocampal atrophy. It is hallmarked by the accumulation of extracellular amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. The underlying mechanisms contributing to the development of the disease remain elusive and controversial. Despite the advancement in understanding the mechanism of pathogenesis, clinical trials have been unsuccessful and provided no relief from disease progression, only slowing the progression. Recent FDA-approved anti-amyloid therapy aducanumab highlights that it is effective for patients with very mild, biomarker-proven AD. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a more accessible biomarker screening test using less invasive and cost-effective body fluid biomarkers. These diagnostics will serve as the first line of effective AD therapies before extensive pathophysiological brain devastation occurs.
  • 74
  • 05 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Photochemical Internalization of siRNA for Cancer Therapy
In the race to design ever more effective therapy with ever more focused and controlled actions, nanomedicine and phototherapy seem to be two allies of choice. Indeed, the use of nanovectors making it possible to transport and protect genetic material is becoming increasingly important. In addition, the use of a method allowing the release of genetic material in a controlled way in space and time is also a strategy increasingly studied thanks to the use of lasers. In parallel, the use of interfering RNA and, more particularly, of small-interfering RNA (siRNA) has demonstrated significant potential for gene therapy.
  • 44
  • 03 Aug 2022
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