Topic Review
Yersinia Species
Yersinia spp. are non-spore-forming Gram-negative bacilli. They comprise only three species known to cause disease in humans, namely Y. pestis, Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis. Since infective endocarditis (IE) is rarely caused by Yersinia, the management of these infections can be problematic due to the lack of experience.
  • 111
  • 25 Feb 2021
Topic Review
Tranditional Use and Nutritional Value of Lansium domesticum
Lansium domesticum (Langsat, Meliaceae) is a tropical fruit mainly found in Southeast Asian countries, particularly in Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines.
  • 71
  • 21 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Point-Of-Care or Point-Of-Need Diagnostic Tests
In the recent years, the progress of international trade and travel has led to an increased risk of emerging infections. Around 75 percent of the pathogens causing these infections are of animal origin. Point-of-care tests (POCT) and point-of-need tests (PONT) have been established in order to directly provide accurate and rapid diagnostics at field level, the patient bed-side or at the site of outbreaks. These assays can help physicians and decision makers to take the right action without delay. Typically, POCT and PONT rely on genomic identification of pathogens or track their immunological fingerprint. Recently, protocols for metagenomic diagnostics in the field have been developed.
  • 495
  • 20 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Natural Antimicrobial Products
Drug-resistant bacteria pose a serious threat to human health worldwide. Current antibiotics are losing efficacy and new antimicrobial agents are urgently needed. Living organisms are an invaluable source of antimicrobial compounds. The antimicrobial activity of the most representative natural products of animal, bacterial, fungal and plant origin are reviewed in this article. Their activity against drug-resistant bacteria, their mechanisms of action, the possible development of resistance against them, their role in current medicine and their future perspectives are discussed. Natural compounds of heterogeneous origins have been shown to possess antimicrobial capabilities, including against antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The most commonly found mechanisms of antimicrobial action are related to protein biosynthesis and alteration of cell walls and membranes. Various natural compounds, especially phytochemicals, have shown synergistic capacity with antibiotics. There is little literature on the development of specific resistance mechanisms against natural antimicrobial compounds. New technologies such as -omics, network pharmacology and informatics have the potential to identify and characterize new natural antimicrobial compounds in the future. This knowledge may be useful for the development of future therapeutic strategies.
  • 360
  • 05 Jan 2021
Topic Review
Microfluidics and Plasmodium
Malaria is caused by a protozoan parasite called Plasmodium. Four different species of Plasmodium cause human infections: P. falciparum, P. malariae, P. ovale and P. vivax. Worldwide, the most prevalent species is P. falciparum (around 96%), which is the most lethal species (300,000 deaths worldwide in 2017), and P. vivax, which has the most extensive geographical distribution.
  • 67
  • 26 Oct 2021
Topic Review
Microbiota of Sand Flies
Sand flies are a significant public health concern in many parts of the world where they are known to transmit agents of several zoonotic diseases to humans, such as leishmaniasis. Vector control remains a key component of many anti-leishmaniasis programs and probably will remain so until an effective vaccine becomes available. The sand fly gut microbiota has emerged as an encouraging field for the exploration of vector-based disease control. In particular, the gut microbiome was previously reported to either enhance or inhibit parasite activity depending on the species of bacteria and, thus, has the potential to alter vector competence. 
  • 177
  • 17 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Mechanisms of Snake Venom Induced Pain
Not all venoms contain the same constituents; not all sensory neurons or other components of the nervous system are vulnerable to the same peptide or enzyme; not all tissues and organs have the same innervation or vulnerability to venom constituents; and, lastly, snakes have incredibly diverse venom proteomes, a diversity driven by geographical and other environmental factors. Documentation of specific pain syndromes in greater detail in future epidemiological studies of snake bite is also critical. 
  • 129
  • 28 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Liver Fluke, Blood Fluke Vaccines
Liver flukes (Fasciola spp., Opisthorchis spp, Clonorchis sinensis) and blood flukes (Schistosoma spp.) are parasitic helminths causing neglected tropical diseases that result in substantial morbidity afflicting millions globally. Affecting the world’s poorest people, fasciolosis, opisthorchiasis, clonorchiasis and schistosomiasis cause severe disability; hinder growth, productivity and cognitive development; and can end in death. Children are often disproportionately affected. F. hepatica and F. gigantica are also the most important trematode flukes parasitising ruminants and cause substantial economic losses annually. Mass drug administration (MDA) programs for the control of these liver and blood fluke infections are in place in a number of countries but treatment coverage is often low, re-infection rates are high and drug compliance and effectiveness can vary. Furthermore, the spectre of drug resistance is ever-present, so MDA is not effective or sustainable long term. Vaccination would provide an invaluable tool to achieve lasting control leading to elimination.
  • 370
  • 12 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Leishmaniasis
Leishmaniasis is a tropical and subtropical poverty-related disease caused by an intracellular parasite belonging to the genus Leishmania. Humans are generally infected via the bite of a sandfly, mostly Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia, around the world. According to reliable reports, 0.7–1 million new cases of the disease are notified annually, and 12–15 million people are now infected with the disease in different parts of the world. 
  • 116
  • 19 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Leishmaniases
The control of leishmaniases, a complex parasitic disease caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania, requires continuous innovation at the therapeutic and vaccine levels. Thus, the classical drugs are toxic and generate drug resistance. These limitations are also the consequence of a non adapted biodistribution of the active principles. Chitosan is a biocompatible polymer administrable via different routes and possessing numerous qualities to be used in the antileishmanial strategies.
  • 181
  • 27 Oct 2020
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