Topic Review
Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in Perimenopausal Women
Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a frequent symptom in perimenopausal women. It is defined as uterine bleeding in which the duration, frequency, or amount of bleeding is considered excessive and negatively affects the woman’s quality of life (QoL) and psychological well-being.
  • 100
  • 24 May 2022
Topic Review
Adenomyosis is defined as an invasion of the endometrium into the uterine myometrium, which results in an enlargement of the uterus, formation of adenomyotic tumours, profuse menstrual and inter-menstrual bleeding and recurrent pain. Microscopically ectopic nonneoplastic, endometrial glands and stroma surrounded by the hypertrophic and hyperplastic myometrium are noted. It is estrogens' dependent disease so that the hormonal treatment is the first line treatment in adenomyotic patients.
  • 139
  • 16 Feb 2021
Topic Review
Adolescent dietary habit-induced obstetric and gynecologic disease (ADHOGD) is dieting and breakfast skipping during adolescence and adulthood, impair development and maturation of the reproductive function (1), which induces latent progression of obstetrics and gynecologic disorders (2). Although recovery is achieved after correcting adverse eating habits (3), the reproductive function declines (4), and this leads to the latter onset of obstetrics and gynecologic diseases (5).
  • 318
  • 29 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Adipocytokines are hormonally active molecules that are believed to play a key role in the regulation of crucial biological processes in the human body.
  • 202
  • 24 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Adolescent Endometriosis
Endometriosis is a chronic condition that affects women throughout various stages of their lives by causing pain, infertility, and malignant progression.
  • 128
  • 22 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Advanced Ultrasound Technology in Obstetrics
Over the years, there have been several improvements in ultrasound technologies including high-resolution ultrasonography, linear transducer, radiant flow, three-/ four-dimensional (3D/4D) ultrasound, speckle tracking of the fetal heart, and artificial intelligence. The aims of this entry are to evaluate the use of these advanced technologies in obstetrics in the midst of new guidelines on and new techniques of obstetric ultrasonography. In particular, whether these technologies can improve the diagnostic capability, functional analysis, workflow and ergonomics of obstetric ultrasound examinations will be discussed. 
  • 257
  • 24 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Alcohol Use in Pregnancy
Understanding the factors that contribute to women’s alcohol use in pregnancy is of critical importance to women's health and prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Alcohol use in pregnancy is influenced by a range of contextual and structural factors, including poverty, histories of trauma and violence, physical and mental health concerns, normalization of alcohol in social networks, sociocultural and economic vulnerabilities and disadvantage, and child welfare involvement. Therefore, beyond supporting individual change, it is necessary to address a range of structural and systemic issues through the adoption of emerging gender-, trauma-, cultural, and equity-informed interventions. 
  • 179
  • 24 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Angiogenic Factors in Endometrial Cancer
Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most frequent gynecological malignancy in developed countries and requires a relatively invasive diagnostic evaluation and operative therapy as the primary therapeutic approach. Angiogenesis is one of the main processes needed for cancer growth and spread. The production of angiogenic factors (AFs) appears early in the process of carcinogenesis. The detection of AFs in plasma and tissue and a better understanding of the angiogenic properties of EC may contribute not only to earlier but also more specific diagnosis and consequently tailored and individual therapeutic approaches. AFs and their receptors also have high potential as binding sites for targeted cancer therapy.
  • 206
  • 02 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Animal Models and Endometrioma-Related Infertility
Endometrioma (OMA) is the most common subtype of endometriosis, in which the endometriotic lesions are implanted in the ovary. Women with OMA are usually associated with infertility, presenting with reduced ovarian reserve, low oocyte quantity and quality, and poor fertility outcomes. However, the underlying pathological mechanisms in OMA-related infertility are still unclear. Due to the limitations and ethical issues of human studies in reproduction, animal models that recapitulate OMA characteristics and its related infertility are critical for mechanistic studies and subsequent drug development, preclinical testing, and clinical trials. 
  • 65
  • 29 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Antioxidants and Female Reproductive Function
Treatment with antioxidants is increasingly used to slow down aging processes in different organs of the human body, including those implicated in female fertility. There is a plethora of different natural, synthetic or semi-synthetic medicines available on the market; most of them can be purchased without medical prescription. Even though the use of antioxidants, even under conditions of auto-medication, was shown to improve many functions related to female infertility related to oxidative stress, the lack of medical control and supervision can lead to an overmedication resulting in an opposite extreme, reductive stress, which can be counterproductive with regard to reproductive function and produce various adverse health effects in general.
  • 131
  • 29 Mar 2022
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