Topic Review
Adolescent dietary habit-induced obstetric and gynecologic disease (ADHOGD) is dieting and breakfast skipping during adolescence and adulthood, impair development and maturation of the reproductive function (1), which induces latent progression of obstetrics and gynecologic disorders (2). Although recovery is achieved after correcting adverse eating habits (3), the reproductive function declines (4), and this leads to the latter onset of obstetrics and gynecologic diseases (5).
  • 350
  • 29 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Advanced Ultrasound Technology in Obstetrics
Over the years, there have been several improvements in ultrasound technologies including high-resolution ultrasonography, linear transducer, radiant flow, three-/ four-dimensional (3D/4D) ultrasound, speckle tracking of the fetal heart, and artificial intelligence. The aims of this entry are to evaluate the use of these advanced technologies in obstetrics in the midst of new guidelines on and new techniques of obstetric ultrasonography. In particular, whether these technologies can improve the diagnostic capability, functional analysis, workflow and ergonomics of obstetric ultrasound examinations will be discussed. 
  • 325
  • 24 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Maternal Docosahexaenoic Acid
Dietary components are essential for the structural and functional development of the brain. Among these, docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6n-3 (DHA), is critically necessary for the structure and development of the growing fetal brain in utero.
  • 306
  • 15 Dec 2020
Topic Review
Micronutrients and DHA during Pregnancy
 First randomized trial of multiple micronutrients and DHA in pregnant women during second and third trimester. Supplementation complemented dietary intake and increased maternal DHA. Vitamin D levels increased with supplementation but decreased in controls.  Results are clinically relevant as DHA is vital for fetal neurodevelopment.
  • 301
  • 19 Aug 2020
Topic Review
GnRH receptors are expressed in other reproductive organs, such as the ovary and in tumors originating from the ovary. In ovarian cancer, GnRH is involved in the regulation of proliferation and metastasis. The effects on ovarian tumors can be indirect or direct. GnRH acts indirectly via the HPG axis and directly via GnRH receptors on the surface of ovarian cancer cells.
  • 288
  • 07 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
The American Diabetes Association (ADA) defines gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) as diabetes diagnosed in the second or third trimester of pregnancy that was not clearly overt diabetes prior to gestation[5].
  • 288
  • 30 Dec 2020
Topic Review
Caesarean Section
Cesarean section is a surgical procedure, which is the most frequently performed in gynecology and obstetrics. It is commonly believed that an operative delivery is a less painful and safer mode of delivery, which translates into an increasing number of the procedures performed without medical indications. The maternal sequelae of cesarean sections are well elucidated and widely discussed in the literature, while long-term neonatal consequences still remain the issue of research and scientific dispute.
  • 288
  • 24 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Adipocytokines are hormonally active molecules that are believed to play a key role in the regulation of crucial biological processes in the human body.
  • 287
  • 24 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Corpus luteum
The corpus luteum is a temporary endocrine gland in the ovary. In the ovarian cycle, repeated patterns of specific cellular proliferation, differentiation, and transformation occur that accompany the formation and regression of the corpus luteum. Molecular mechanism events in the ovarian microenvironment, such as angiogenesis and apoptosis, are complex. Recently, we focused on the role of RAS protein in the ovarian corpus luteum. RAS protein plays a vital role in the modulation of cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation by molecular pathway signaling. Additionally, reproductive hormones regulate RAS activity in the cellular physiological function of ovarian follicles during pre-ovulatory maturation and ovulation. Thus, we have reviewed the role of RAS protein related to the biological events of the corpus luteum in the ovary.
  • 276
  • 11 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Whole Ovary Cryopreservation and Transplantation
The aim of this systematic review is to shed light on the challenges of whole ovary cryopreservation and transplantation and to summarize the solutions that have been proposed so far in animal experiments and humans in order to stimulate further research in the field.
  • 268
  • 16 Oct 2020
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