Topic Review
Uterosacral Ligament
The uterosacral ligaments (USLs) are extraperitoneal structures that extend backward from the posterior surface of the cervix and upper vagina to the second-to-fourth sacral vertebrae, forming the lateral boundaries of the rectouterine and rectovaginal spaces. They are composed mainly of connective tissue along with vessels and splanchnic nerve fibers.
  • 1037
  • 08 Feb 2021
Topic Review
Cervical Epithelial Cells
Using Raman microscopy, we investigated epithelial cervical cells collected from 96 women with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or belonging to groups I, IIa, IIID-1 and IIID-2 according to Munich III classification (IIID-1 and IIID-2 corresponding to Bethesda LSIL and HSIL groups, respectively). All women were tested for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection using PCR. Subcellular resolution of Raman microscopy enabled to understand phenotypic differences in a heterogeneous population of cervical cells in the following groups: I/HPV−, IIa/HPV−, IIa/HPV−, LSIL/HPV−, LSIL/HPV+, HSIL/HPV−, HSIL/HPV+ and cancer cells (SCC/HPV+). We showed for the first time that the glycogen content in the cytoplasm decreased with the nucleus size of cervical cells in all studied groups apart from the cancer group. For the subpopulation of large-nucleus cells HPV infection resulted in considerable glycogen depletion compared to HPV negative cells in IIa, LSIL (for both statistical significance, ca. 45%) and HSIL (trend, 37%) groups. We hypothesize that accelerated glycogenolysis in large-nucleus cells may be associated with the increased protein metabolism for HPV positive cells. Our work underlines unique capabilities of Raman microscopy in single cell studies and demonstrate potential of Raman-based methods in HPV diagnostics.
  • 464
  • 29 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Breast Cancer Metastasis
Breast cancer metastasis is the leading cause of cancer deaths in women and is difficult to combat due to the long periods in which disseminated cells stay dormant and can be re-activated to start the relapse. Assessing the number and molecular profile of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in breast cancer patients, especially in early breast cancer, should help in identifying the possibility of relapse in time for therapeutic intervention to prevent or delay recurrence. Molecular analysis of CTCs have a potential to define particular susceptibilities of the cells representing the current tumor burden, which may be considerably different from the cells of the primary tumor. While metastatic breast cancer is considered incurable this approach may off er more tailored therapy to the patients. In this article we inspect the routes to metastasis in breast cancer and how they can be linked to specific features of CTCs, how CTC analysis may be used in therapy, and what is the current status of the research and efforts to include CTC analysis in clinical practice.
  • 463
  • 26 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous substances able to mimic or to interfere with the endocrine system, thus altering key biological processes such as organ development, reproduction, immunity, metabolism and behavior. High concentrations of EDCs are found in several everyday products including plastic bottles and food containers and they could be easily absorbed by dietary intake. In recent years, considerable interest has been raised regarding the biological effects of EDCs, particularly Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates, on human pregnancy and fetal development. Several evidence obtained on in vitro and animal models as well as by epidemiologic and population studies strongly indicated that endocrine disruptors could negatively impact fetal and placental health by interfering with the embryonic developing epigenome, thus establishing disease paths into adulthood. Moreover, EDCs could cause and/or contribute to the onset of severe gestational conditions as Preeclampsia (PE), Fetal Growth Restriction (FGR) and gestational diabetes in pregnancy, as well as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular complications in reproductive age. Therefore, despite contrasting data being present in the literature, endocrine disruptors must be considered as a therapeutic target. Future actions aimed at reducing or eliminating EDC exposure during the perinatal period are mandatory to guarantee pregnancy success and preserve fetal and adult health.
  • 389
  • 27 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin
Human chorionic gonadotropin is a glycoprotein hormone produced by the trophoblast during pregnancy as well as by both trophoblastic and non-trophoblastic tumors. 
  • 366
  • 26 Oct 2020
Topic Review
GDM
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a pregnancy complication first detected in the second or third trimester in women that did not show evident glucose intolerance or diabetes before gestation. 
  • 350
  • 27 May 2021
Topic Review
Gynecological Problems in Newborns
Pediatric-adolescent or developmental gynecology has been separated from the general gynecology because of the unique issues that affect the development and anatomy of growing girls and young women. It deals with patients from the neonatal period until maturity. There are not many gynecological problems that can be diagnosed in newborns; however, some are typical for the neonatal period. This paper aimed to discuss the most frequent gynecological issues in the neonatal period.
  • 344
  • 12 Mar 2021
Topic Review
ADHOGD
Adolescent dietary habit-induced obstetric and gynecologic disease (ADHOGD) is dieting and breakfast skipping during adolescence and adulthood, impair development and maturation of the reproductive function (1), which induces latent progression of obstetrics and gynecologic disorders (2). Although recovery is achieved after correcting adverse eating habits (3), the reproductive function declines (4), and this leads to the latter onset of obstetrics and gynecologic diseases (5).
  • 316
  • 29 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Fowler’s Syndrome
Fowler’s syndrome is characterized by a large bladder capacity, reduced sensation, increased maximal urethral closure pressure, and detrusor underactivity.
  • 316
  • 22 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Preeclampsia
Preeclampsia (PE) is a common obstetric disease characterized by hypertension, proteinuria, and multi-system dysfunction. It endangers both maternal and fetal health. Although hemostasis is critical for preventing bleeding complications during pregnancy, delivery, and post-partum, PE patients often develop a severe prothrombotic state, potentially resulting in life-threatening thrombosis and thromboembolism. The cause of this thrombotic complication is multi-factorial, involving endothelial cells, platelets, adhesive ligands, coagulation, and fibrinolysis. Increasing evidence has shown that hemostatic cells and factors undergo oxidative modifications during the systemic inflammation found in PE patients. However, it is largely unknown how these oxidative modifications of hemostasis contribute to development of the PE-associated prothrombotic state. This knowledge gap has significantly hindered the development of predictive markers, preventive measures, and therapeutic agents to protect women during pregnancy.
  • 312
  • 08 Dec 2020
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