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Antisclerostin Effect on Osseointegration and Bone
Sclerostin is a glycoprotein encoded in humans by the SOST gene. It is located on chromosome 17q12-q21, with a C-terminal cysteine knot-like (CTCK) domain. It has a similar sequence also to DAN (Differential screening-selected gene Aberrative in Neuroblastoma), an antagonist’s family of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). Sclerostin is primarily produced and secreted by osteocytes. Moreover, it is a negative key regulator of osteoblastic functions. It inhibits osteoblast differentiation and bone formation by inhibiting the Wnt signaling pathway after binding with LRP5 and 6 (Wnt-coreceptor). This canonical Wnt signaling (Wnt/β-catenin pathway) is essential in bone healing. It promotes pre-osteoblast proliferation and osteo-induction, enhances survival of all cells of the osteoblast lineage, inhibits differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into chondrocytes and adipocytes and controls osteoclast maturation by regulating RANKL levels in osteoblast receptors.
15 Feb 2023
Regulators of Fibrinolysis in Oral Cavity
The oral cavity is a unique environment that consists of teeth surrounded by periodontal tissues, oral mucosae with minor salivary glands, and terminal parts of major salivary glands that open into the oral cavity. It is a first-line defense against most viral and bacterial pathogens. Fibrinolytic factors of the plasminogen (Plg)/plasmin (Pm) system, their soluble and membrane receptors, and fragments, such as suPAR (soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor) modulate physiological and pathological conditions, especially inflammation. Fibrinolysis, the removal of fibrin, is the primary function of fibrinolytic factors. Under physiological conditions, fibrinolytic factors are present in the oral cavity and secreted mostly with saliva. Under the inflammation plasminogen/plasmin system performs fibrinolytic and non-fibrinolytic functions: cytokines or proteases (MMPs) are activated, receptors such as suPAR are shed from the surface promoting cell migration, and modulation of the inflammatory response. Viruses, like SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), exploit the fibrinolytic system to promote host cell infection.
10 Feb 2023
Extracellular Vesicles for Dental Pulp and Periodontal Regeneration
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid bound particles derived from their original cells, which play critical roles in intercellular communication through their cargoes, including protein, lipids, and nucleic acids. Status of EVs in pulp/periodontal tissue regeneration and the potential mechanisms are discussed.
10 Feb 2023
Although the evolution of tooth structure seems highly conserved, remarkable diversity exists among species due to different living environments and survival requirements. Along with the conservation, this diversity of evolution allows for the optimized structures and functions of teeth under various service conditions, providing valuable resources for the rational design of biomimetic materials.
03 Feb 2023
Effects of Prosthetic Restorative Biomaterials on the Periodontium
The success of a prosthetic treatment is closely related to the periodontal health of the individual. The periodontium constitutes the tissues that support the teeth. It is made up of two soft tissues (which are the gingiva and periodontal ligament) and two hard tissues (which are the root cementum and alveolar bone).
31 Jan 2023
Resveratrol against Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most prevailing and aggressive head and neck cancers, featuring high morbidity and mortality. The available conventional treatments suffer from several adverse effects and are often inefficient in terms of their survival rates. Thus, seeking novel therapeutic agents and adjuvants is of the utmost importance for modern society. Natural polyphenolic compounds have recently emerged as promising chemopreventive and anticancer agents. Specifically, the natural compound resveratrol (RSV) has recently gained momentum for this purpose. RSV is useful for treating OSCC due to its antiproliferative, antimetastatic, and proapoptotic effects. Additionally, RSV acts against tumor cells while synergically cooperating with chemotherapeutics, overcoming drug resistance phenomena.
17 Jan 2023
Association between Periodontitis and Peri-Implantitis
Dental implants to replace lost teeth are a common dentistry practice nowadays. Titanium dental implants display a high success rate and improved safety profile. Nevertheless, there is an increasing peri-implantitis (PI), an inflammatory disease associated with polymicrobial infection that adversely affects the hard and soft tissues around the implant. Studies have demonstrated that oral microbiota (microorganisms residing in the oral cavity collectively known as oral microbiota) associated with periodontitis (PE) is involved in the infections related to PI, indicating a common link between PE and PI.
16 Jan 2023
Systemic Diseases and Biological Dental Implant Complications
The relationship between periodontitis and such systemic disorders as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and obesity has been extensively investigated. There is less scientific evidence available, however, regarding the influence of systemic diseases on the risk of late failure of dental implant rehabilitation due to peri-implantitis. Most of the literature concludes for no association between diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension or osteoporosis and the risk of peri-implantitis. On the other hand, almost all the studies that investigated obesity as a risk factor for implant rehabilitation found a positive association between the two.
12 Jan 2023
Applications of Nanoparticles in Dentistry
Interest in the topic of nanoparticles (NPs) and nanomaterials used in dentistry is growing in research as well as clinical settings. An increasing number of nanomaterials have been developed and tested, enabling novel solutions unavailable in dentistry before. The shape and size of these particles influences the physicochemical properties of a substance, which in turn impacts their absorption characteristics. Nanomaterials have unique structures and properties that distinguish them from other materials. In the dental field, nanoparticles have a variety of applications, such as nanocomposites, antimicrobial nanomaterials and bio-mineralization systems.
11 Jan 2023
Materials Used for Customized Healing Abutment
A customized healing abutment is designed by modifying the size and transmucosal shape of the healing abutment to mimic the natural profile of an emerging tooth.
22 Dec 2022
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