Topic Review
Halitosis, also known as fetor ex ore, bad breath or oral malodor, is a common disorder meaning unpleasant smell from the mouth. Halitosis is a common problem that manifests as an unpleasant and disgusting odor emanating from the mouth[1]. Malodor is mainly caused by putrefactive actions of microorganisms on endogenous or exogenous proteins and peptides. Oral malodor is an embarrassing condition that affects a large percentage of the human population. This condition often results in nervousness, humiliation, and social difficulties, such as the inability to approach people and speak to them[2][3][4][5][6].
  • 929
  • 11 Sep 2020
Topic Review
Microalgae Impact on Oral Health
Microalgae and cyanobacteria could represent a potential natural alternative to antibiotic, antiviral, or antimycotic therapies, as well as a good supplement for the prevention and co-adjuvant treatment of different oral diseases.
  • 901
  • 24 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Additive Manufacturing Processes
Additive manufacturing (AM, 3D printing) is used in many fields and different industries. In the medical and dental field, every patient is unique and, therefore, AM has significant potential in personalized and customized solutions. This text explores what additive manufacturing processes and materials are utilized in medical and dental applications, especially focusing on processes that are less commonly used. The processes are categorized in ISO/ASTM process classes: powder bed fusion, material extrusion, VAT photopolymerization, material jetting, binder jetting, sheet lamination and directed energy deposition combined with classification of medical applications of AM. Based on the findings, it seems that directed energy deposition is utilized rarely only in implants and sheet lamination rarely for medical models or phantoms. Powder bed fusion, material extrusion and VAT photopolymerization are utilized in all categories. Material jetting is not used for implants and biomanufacturing, and binder jetting is not utilized for tools, instruments and parts for medical devices. The most common materials are thermoplastics, photopolymers and metals such as titanium alloys. If standard terminology of AM would be followed, this would allow a more systematic review of the utilization of different AM processes.
  • 850
  • 09 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Nanomaterials in Dentistry
       Nanomaterials are commonly considered as those materials in which the shape and molecular composition at a nanometer scale can be controlled. Subsequently, they present extraordinary properties that are being useful for the development of new and improved applications in many fields, including medicine. In dentistry, several research efforts are being conducted, especially during the last decade, for the improvement of the properties of materials used in dentistry.
  • 840
  • 29 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Thermal Load and Heat Transfer in Dental Implants
Heat is a kinetic process whereby energy flows from between two systems, hot-to-cold objects. In oro-dental implantology, conductive heat transfer/(or thermal stress) is a complex physical phenomenon to analyze and consider in treatment planning. Hence, ample research has attempted to measure heat-production to avoid over-heating during bone-cutting and drilling for titanium (Ti) implant-site preparation and insertion, thereby preventing/minimizing early (as well as delayed) implant-related complications and failure. The goal is two-fold: (A) the standard heat equation is proposed to be solved, modifying the imposed boundary conditions without any additional source term, and on the other hand, (B) a gap is filled in the literature via obtaining an exact analytical solution of a somewhat simplified problem, which nevertheless, encapsulates the physics and reproduces the results already found in previous works via numerical analyses. In addition, for the first time, the intrinsic time is introduced and involved herein, a “proper” time that characterizes the geometry of the dental implant fixture and overall system, and how the interplay between that time and the exposure time influences temperature changes, and subsequent implant survival, are shown. Thus, this work aims to complement the overall clinical diagnostic and treatment plan for enhanced biological one–implant interface and mechanical implant stability and success rates, whether for immediate or delayed implant loading strategies.
  • 838
  • 11 Mar 2022
Topic Review
WNT Signalling in Dental Pathologies
Great efforts have been made over the past decades to discover new therapeutic targets for a big variety of human pathologies. Most of the studies dealing with severe pathological conditions such as cancers and tissue malformations are focused on the role of either widely recognized master controlling genes such as ras and myc or pivotal components of key signalling pathways, among which Wnt and Notch. However, these genes and molecules are fundamental for paired embryogenesis as well as for tissue and organ homeostasis and regeneration, where they regulate cell proliferation, migration, differentiation and apoptosis. The precise timing and localization of their activation are important to ensure the appropriate cellular functions in physiological conditions. Thus, their indiscriminate targeting is not desirable, due to both the high risk of severe side effects and the certainty of broad phenotypic consequences. On the contrary, optimal therapeutic targets should be selected based on their tissue, time and pathology specific roles. Here, we suggest a paradigmatic example of such target molecules that could be represented by the Wnt/b-catenin signalling components Bcl9 and Bcl9l. 
  • 794
  • 05 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Health and Oral Health Coaching
Health-related behavior based on diet is an important determinant of oral health in independent elderly. Aging impairs senses, mastication, oral status, and function, causing nutritional needs and diet insufficiencies that contribute to a vicious circle of impairment. But the present needs of independent older adults suggest that health research and oral health care should shift from disease management and therapy to integral customized and personal treatment plans, including lifestyle, psychological, nutritional, and oral health coaching approaches. In this paper health coaching approaches in medical and dental settings are valued as to their effectiveness for older adults. Furthermore, coaching approaches for seniors are discussed and coaching models for better senior patient-dentist cooperation on the diet issue are suggested. Diet and oral health coaching is proven to be a modern senior patient-centered approach that needs to be incorporated at all relevant settings. It should aim to empower older adults in co-management of their oral diseases or bad diet habits affecting their oral health. This can be carried out through an incorporated educational plan for dentists either at the postgraduate or professional level since advantages seem to enhance the quality of life of the independent elderly.
  • 794
  • 31 Jan 2022
Topic Review
3D Printing for Periodontal Regeneration
The three-dimensional printing of scaffolds is an interesting alternative to the traditional techniques of periodontal regeneration. This technique uses computer assisted design and manufacturing after CT scan. After 3D modelling, individualized scaffolds are printed by extrusion, selective laser sintering, stereolithography, or powder bed inkjet printing. These scaffolds can be made of one or several materials such as natural polymers, synthetic polymers, or bioceramics.
  • 747
  • 14 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Oxidative Stress in Periodontal Disease
Periodontal disease dominates as the most common inflammatory disease in the oral cavity. There is growing evidence on the involvement of oxidative stress, which is simply described as the imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in favor of the former, in the initiation and progression of periodontal disease. Redox mechanistic insights that underlie immuno-inflammatory pathway may thus advance our understanding about periodontal pathogenesis, serving as the background for the development of efficient strategies for periodontal disease prevention and treatment.
  • 743
  • 15 Jan 2021
Topic Review
Applications for Nanotechnology in Endodontics
Nanotechnology has been utilized in several different parts of dentistry. Nanomaterials can be employed as irrigation, intracanal medicament, obturation materials and sealers.
  • 743
  • 11 Aug 2022
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