Topic Review
Post-COVID-19 Symptoms and Dental Management
The available data regarding the short and long-term consequences of COVID-19 is still insufficient. This entry aims to provide information on the prolonged COVID-19 symptoms in recovered patients and their implications during dental management. 
  • 2022
  • 27 May 2021
Topic Review Peer Reviewed
Periodontal Regeneration
Periodontal regeneration is a technique that aims to regenerate the damaged tissue around periodontally compromised teeth. The regenerative process aims to use scaffolds, cells, and growth factors to enhance biological activity. 
  • 597
  • 13 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Rigenera® Micrografts in Oral Regeneration
Biomaterials derive either from nature or synthesized in the laboratory using chemical approaches utilizing metallic components, polymers, ceramics, or composite materials. They are often used and adapted for medical applications. A biomaterial is also defined as autograft, allograft, or xenograft used as a transplant material. In the last decade also tissue engineering and stem cells were deeply studied trying to make better autologous biomaterials ready to be used in regenerative procedures. Micrografts are a new concept of biomaterial, they are enriched of progenitor cells that are a particular type of stem cell excellent in enhancing the regenerative potential. Moreover, another advantage is the easy handling and tissue availability.
  • 593
  • 29 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Polyoxymethylene
Polyoxymethylene (POM) is a material able to provide tooth-colored esthetics and that is suitable for fabrication of frameworks for removable dental prostheses. POM can be characterized as both polyethers (-C-O-) as well as polyacetals (-O-C-O-).
  • 570
  • 29 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Microalgae Impact on Oral Health
Microalgae and cyanobacteria could represent a potential natural alternative to antibiotic, antiviral, or antimycotic therapies, as well as a good supplement for the prevention and co-adjuvant treatment of different oral diseases.
  • 480
  • 24 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Polyurethanes in Biomedicine
Due to their mechanical properties, ranging from flexible to hard materials, polyurethanes (PUs) have been widely used in many industrial and biomedical applications. PU characteristics, along with their biocompatibility, make them successful biomaterials in short and medium time applications.  The most important biomedical applications of PUs include antibacterial surfaces and catheters, blood oxygenators, dialysis devices, stents, cardiac valves, vascular prostheses, bioadhesives/surgical dressings/pressure sensitive adhesives, drug delivery systems, tissue engineering scaffolds and electrospinning, nerve generation, pacemaker lead insulation and coatings for breast implants. The diversity of polyurethane properties due to the ease of bulk and surface modification plays a vital role in their applications. 
  • 477
  • 28 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Nanomaterials in Dentistry
       Nanomaterials are commonly considered as those materials in which the shape and molecular composition at a nanometer scale can be controlled. Subsequently, they present extraordinary properties that are being useful for the development of new and improved applications in many fields, including medicine. In dentistry, several research efforts are being conducted, especially during the last decade, for the improvement of the properties of materials used in dentistry.
  • 476
  • 29 Oct 2020
Topic Review
WNT Signalling in Dental Pathologies
Great efforts have been made over the past decades to discover new therapeutic targets for a big variety of human pathologies. Most of the studies dealing with severe pathological conditions such as cancers and tissue malformations are focused on the role of either widely recognized master controlling genes such as ras and myc or pivotal components of key signalling pathways, among which Wnt and Notch. However, these genes and molecules are fundamental for paired embryogenesis as well as for tissue and organ homeostasis and regeneration, where they regulate cell proliferation, migration, differentiation and apoptosis. The precise timing and localization of their activation are important to ensure the appropriate cellular functions in physiological conditions. Thus, their indiscriminate targeting is not desirable, due to both the high risk of severe side effects and the certainty of broad phenotypic consequences. On the contrary, optimal therapeutic targets should be selected based on their tissue, time and pathology specific roles. Here, we suggest a paradigmatic example of such target molecules that could be represented by the Wnt/b-catenin signalling components Bcl9 and Bcl9l. 
  • 467
  • 05 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Halitosis
Halitosis, also known as fetor ex ore, bad breath or oral malodor, is a common disorder meaning unpleasant smell from the mouth. Halitosis is a common problem that manifests as an unpleasant and disgusting odor emanating from the mouth[1]. Malodor is mainly caused by putrefactive actions of microorganisms on endogenous or exogenous proteins and peptides. Oral malodor is an embarrassing condition that affects a large percentage of the human population. This condition often results in nervousness, humiliation, and social difficulties, such as the inability to approach people and speak to them[2][3][4][5][6].
  • 450
  • 11 Sep 2020
Topic Review
Electrospinning in GBR
Nanofibre-based membranes or scaffolds exhibit high surface-to-volume ratio, which allows an improved cell adhesion, representing an attractive subgroup of biomaterials due to their unique properties. Guided bone regeneration is a surgical procedure in which bone regeneration, due to bone atrophy following tooth loss, is “guided” by an occlusive barrier. New approaches such as multifunctional multilayering and coupling with bone promoting factors or antimicrobial agents, makes this technology very attractive also for bone regeneration procedures. The technical limitations of traditional electrospinning strategies for bone-tissue engineering applications might be critical for the preparation of three-dimensional scaffolds.  
  • 441
  • 30 Oct 2020
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