Topic Review
Geopolymer Concrete
Geopolymer concrete is a type of concrete that is made by reacting aluminate and silicate bearing materials with a caustic activator, such as fly ash or slag from iron and metal production. It can be a suitable substitute for ordinary Portland cement (OPC). 
  • 5997
  • 18 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Two-Dimensional Materials
Two-dimensional (2D) materials are defined as crystalline materials consisting of single- or few-layer atoms, in which the in-plane interatomic interactions are much stronger than those along the stacking direction. Since the success of monolayer graphene exfoliation, 2D materials have been extensively studied due to their unique structures and unprecedented properties. Among these fascinating studies, the most predominant focus has been on their atomic structures, defects, and mechanical behaviors and properties, which serve as the basis for the practical applications of 2D materials.
  • 3672
  • 07 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Kraft Pulp Mill Process
Kraft pulp mills produce a fibrous material composed of wood cellulose fibers, constituting the main raw material for papermaking. The kraft process is the dominant technology in the world to produce pulp, allowing the recycling of most of the pulping chemical in two loops, commonly referred to as the sodium cycle and calcium cycle. A third cycle is also relevant to sodium sulphate recovery. Meanwhile, significant amounts of solid, liquid and gaseous emissions are generated, requiring treatment before release into the environment. Some inorganic solid wastes are of particular concern due to the high quantities generated, which are landfilled: green liquor dregs, slaker grits, lime mud, and boiler fly ash.
  • 2552
  • 29 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Perovskite Materials
In the development of hydrogen-based technology, a key challenge is the sustainable production of hydrogen in terms of energy consumption and environmental aspects. However, existing methods mainly rely on fossil fuels due to their cost efficiency, and as such, it is difficult to be completely independent of carbon-based technology. Electrochemical hydrogen production is essential, since it has shown the successful generation of hydrogen gas of high purity. Similarly, the photoelectrochemical (PEC) method is also appealing, as this method exhibits highly active and stable water splitting with the help of solar energy. We discuss the exceptional optical and electrical characteristics of perovskite materials which often dictate PEC performance. We further extend our discussion to the material limit of perovskite under a hydrogen production environment, i.e., that PEC reactions often degrade the contact between the electrode and the electrolyte.
  • 2122
  • 30 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Smart Textile Materials
In the last three decades, the development of new kinds of textiles, so-called smart and interactive textiles, has continued unabated. Smart textile materials and their applications are set to drastically boom as the demand for these textiles have been increasing with the emergence of new fibers, new fabrics, and innovative processing technologies. Moreover, people are eagerly demanding washable, flexible, lightweight, and robust e-textiles. These features depend on the properties of the starting material, the post-treatment, and the integration techniques. In this work, a comprehensive review has been conducted on the integration techniques of conductive materials in and onto a textile structure. The review showed that an e-textile can be developed by applying a conductive component on the surface of a textile substrate via plating, printing, coating, and other surface techniques, or by producing a textile substrate from metals and inherently conductive polymers via the creation of fibers and construction of yarns and fabrics with these. In addition, conductive filament fibers or yarns can be also integrated into conventional textile substrates during the fabrication like braiding, weaving, and knitting or as a post-fabrication of the textile fabric via embroidering. Additionally, layer-by-layer 3D printing of the entire smart textile components is possible, and the concept of 4D could play a significant role in advancing the status of smart textiles to a new level.
  • 1980
  • 29 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Computational Chemistry Methods
The main objective of computational chemistry is to solve chemical problems by simulating chemical systems (molecular, biological, materials) in order to provide reliable, accurate and comprehensive information at an atomic level. To this end, there are two main methodological families: those based on quantum chemical methods and those based on molecular mechanics. The former are methods in which the electrons are explicitly accounted for, while in the latter their presence is hidden in the force field. 
  • 1979
  • 17 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Owing to their combinations of unique properties of sintered ceramics and the distinctive characteristics of glasses, glass-ceramics have attracted great interest from both academia and industry worldwide since their accidental discovery in 1953.
  • 1684
  • 27 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Thermal Stability of Structural Materials
Thermal stability determines the material ability of retaining its properties at required temperatures over extended service time. In addition to temperature and time, thermal stability is affected by load conditions and environmental conditions.
  • 1376
  • 20 Aug 2020
Topic Review
Shape-Memory Polymers in Dentistry
Objective: To perform a systematic review (SR) of existing literature and a patent landscape report (PLR) regarding the potential applications of shape-memory polymers (SMPs) in dentistry. Search strategy: Clinical and Biomedical online databases (Pubmed, Medline via Embase, Scopus, LILACS, Web of Science, Cochrane Library), Materials Science and Engineering databases (IEEE Explore, Compendex, Proquest), Material Science and Chemical database (Reaxys) so as Patents databases (Questel-Orbit, Espacenet, Patentscope) were consulted as recently as January 2019 to identify all papers and patents potentially relevant to the review. The reference lists of all eligible studies were hand searched for additional published work. Results: After duplicate selection and extraction procedures, 6 relevant full-text articles from the initial 302 and 45 relevant patents from 497 were selected. A modified Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) checklist of 14 items for reporting pre-clinical in-vitro studies was used to rate the methodological quality of the selected papers. The overall quality was judged low. Conclusions: Despite the great potential and versatility of SMPs, it was not possible to draw evidence-based conclusions supporting their immediate employment in clinical dentistry. This was due to the weak design and a limited number of studies included within this review and reflects the fact that additional research is mandatory to determine whether or not the use of SMPs in dentistry could be effective. Nevertheless, the qualitative analysis of selected papers and patents indicate that SMPs are promising materials in dentistry because of their programmable physical properties. These findings suggest the importance of furtherly pursuing this line of research.
  • 1095
  • 28 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Two-Dimensional Silicon Carbide
Two-dimensional silicon carbide (2D SiC) is a single/few atomic layer of silicon carbide.   2D SiC has a graphene-like honeycomb structure consisting of alternating Si and C atoms. In the monolayer SiC, the C and Si atoms bond through  sp2 hybridization to form the SiC sheet.  As a direct wide bandgap semiconducting material, 2D SiC has the potential to bring revolutionary advances into power electronics, optoelectronic and other SiC-based devices. It can overcome current limitations with silicon, bulk SiC, and gapless graphene. In addition to SiC, which is the most stable form of monolayer silicon carbide, other compositions, i.e. SixCy, are also predicted to be energetically favorable. Depending on the stoichiometry and bonding, monolayer SixCy may behave as a semiconductor, semimetal or topological insulator. With different Si/C ratios, the emerging 2D silicon carbide materials could attain novel electronic, optical, magnetic, mechanical, and chemical properties that go beyond those of graphene, silicene, and already discovered 2D semiconducting materials.
  • 916
  • 08 May 2022
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