Topic Review
Fleur de sel
As mechanized processes developed, small producers of traditional sea salt ceased to be competitive. However, when the valuable salt flower (a.k.a. fleur de sel, flower of salt) market appeared, it gave new breath to the activity of traditional salt pan production. Salt flower sensitivity and delicateness became a part of modern food habits. Its crystals present some grain differentiation and these can fulfill diversified consumer tastes. In cooking art, a regular fine flower of salt can be used to finish dishes, whereas a longer and thin grain known as ‘scale’ (a.k.a. écaille de fleur de sel in French) can be used for a more gourmet-like palate.
  • 66
  • 03 Aug 2022
Topic Review
2019–2020 Vaping Lung Illness Outbreak
Template:Infobox outbreak An outbreak of severe vaping-associated lung illness starting in 2019 is ongoing among users of cannabis vaping products, almost exclusively in the United States. The first cases were identified in Illinois and Wisconsin in April 2019; as of January 21, 2020, a total of 2,711 hospitalized cases, including 60 deaths have been confirmed by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control. Cases peaked in September 2019, and have been slowly declining since. CDC investigators identified direct exposure to chemicals present in vaping products as responsible for the outbreak. Vitamin E acetate is a very strong culprit of concern in the lung illnesses related to THC-based vaping products, but the CDC did not rule out other chemicals as possible causes. Though patients have reported using vaping products containing THC, nicotine, or both types, about 86% of patients studied by the CDC admitted THC use. The majority of those affected were young adults 18-34, which is the group with the greatest prevalence of cannabis use in the US. Nicotine-containing products are regulated in the U.S. by the Food and Drug Administration; THC products are illegal under federal law, but allowed and regulated by some states. Prior to the outbreak, vitamin E acetate was used in low concentrations, or lower than 20% of the formula in vape cartridges, as a thickening agent. As a result of a limited availability of cannabis in California as well as high demand, illicit sellers had used about 50% or higher of diluent thickeners in their formulas to bulk up tiny potency vape cartridges, and vitamin E acetate is a common choice because it resembles THC oil. Some jurisdictions took action to restrict the sale of products containing vitamin E acetate and other chemicals in response to the outbreak, but THC products in states where it is illegal and some nictotine-containing products are produced illegally (and sometimes obtained illegally in jurisdictions where legal, by underage consumers).
  • 11
  • 30 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Abandonment (Emotional)
Emotional abandonment is a subjective emotional state in which people feel undesired, left behind, insecure, or discarded. People experiencing emotional abandonment may feel at loss, cut off from a crucial source of sustenance that has been withdrawn, either suddenly, or through a process of erosion. In a classic abandonment scenario, the severance of the emotional bond is unilateral, that is, the object of one’s attachment is the one who chose to break the connection. Feeling rejected, which is a significant component of emotional abandonment, has a biological impact in that it activates the physical pain centers in the brain and can leave an emotional imprint in the brain’s warning system. Abandonment has been a staple of poetry and literature since ancient times.
  • 14
  • 30 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Adjective Check List
The Adjective Check List (ACL) is a psychological assessment containing 300 adjectives used to identify common psychological traits. The ACL was constructed by Harrison G. Gough and Alfred B. Heilbrun, Jr. with the goal to assess psychological traits of an individual. The ACL measures 37 scales within 5 categories: modus operandi (4 scales), need (15 scales), topical (9 scales), transactional analysis (5 scales), and origence-intellectence (4 scales). To complete the ACL, respondents select the adjectives that they believe describe themselves (or someone else). Any number of items may be selected from the list of adjectives. In this way, the results are customized to include only those adjectives salient to the individual being assessed. The ACL takes between 10-15 minutes to complete and may be administered to individuals, groups, or used by researchers to describe study participants. The ACL is protected by copyright law, published by Consulting Psychologists Press, and distributed by Mind Garden, Inc. The ACL was first developed in the early days of the Institute of Personality Assessment and Research at the University of California, Berkeley. It has been used since 1952 by many psychologists worldwide and is one of the 100 most frequently used and cited tests in psychology.
  • 10
  • 29 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Agri Food Sector
  Definition given the complexity of the sector, each supply chain has some peculiarities that require suitable tools. For this reason, it is difficult to identify a common tool for the implementation of circular practices. However, the use of a shared assessment tool should enable comparison of circular performances and practices among the different stages and supply chains and involving all the actors of the AFS. This collaborative approach is required both vertically (among the stages of the supply chain) and horizontally (among the different supply chains) in order to catalyse the transition towards circular business models and to efficiently implement circular practices.  
  • 2958
  • 19 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Agri-Biodiversity Conservation Policy
Agri-biodiversity conservation policy is the set of principles and legislative measures and recommendations, at the national, subnational or international level, that seek to preserve and enhance the conservation status of farmland biodiversity.  
  • 138
  • 26 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Air Pollution and Travelers
Traveler's optimal route choice is impacted by air pollution.
  • 232
  • 19 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Apricot
Fruits maintain the image as the richest sources of vitamins. Focusing on apricots, utilization of apricot species for many applications is possible due to its various benefits. Many research studies demonstrated different perspectives of apricot, especially in medical used as it can act as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial agents. Moreover, in the industrial sectors, apricots can be used in the production of biofuels and batteries.
  • 76
  • 18 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Art History
Art history is the study of objects of art in their historical development and stylistic contexts; that is genre, design, format, and style. The study includes painting, sculpture, architecture, ceramics, furniture, and other decorative objects. As a term, art history (its product being history of art) encompasses several methods of studying the visual arts; in common usage referring to works of art and architecture. Aspects of the discipline overlap. As the art historian Ernst Gombrich once observed, "the field of art history [is] much like Caesar's Gaul, divided in three parts inhabited by three different, though not necessarily hostile tribes: (i) the connoisseurs, (ii) the critics, and (iii) the academic art historians". As a discipline, art history is distinguished from art criticism, which is concerned with establishing a relative artistic value upon individual works with respect to others of comparable style, or sanctioning an entire style or movement; and art theory or "philosophy of art", which is concerned with the fundamental nature of art. One branch of this area of study is aesthetics, which includes investigating the enigma of the sublime and determining the essence of beauty. Technically, art history is not these things, because the art historian uses historical method to answer the questions: How did the artist come to create the work?, Who were the patrons?, Who were his or her teachers?, Who was the audience?, Who were his or her disciples?, What historical forces shaped the artist's oeuvre, and how did he or she and the creation, in turn, affect the course of artistic, political, and social events? It is, however, questionable whether many questions of this kind can be answered satisfactorily without also considering basic questions about the nature of art. The current disciplinary gap between art history and the philosophy of art (aesthetics) often hinders this inquiry. Art history is not only a biographical endeavor. Art historians often root their studies in the scrutiny of individual objects. They thus attempt to answer in historically specific ways, questions such as: What are key features of this style?, What meaning did this object convey?, How does it function visually?, Did the artist meet their goals well?, What symbols are involved?, and Does it function discursively? The historical backbone of the discipline is a celebratory chronology of beautiful creations commissioned by public or religious bodies or wealthy individuals in western Europe. Such a "canon" remains prominent, as indicated by the selection of objects present in art history textbooks. Nonetheless, since the 20th century there has been an effort to re-define the discipline to be more inclusive of non-Western art, art made by women, and vernacular creativity.
  • 18
  • 02 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Assessing Multimodal Transport Systems
The reviewed multimodal transport cost model is based on a relatively simple framework but demonstrates that other existing models of modal choice, multimodal transport and inventory location all oversimplify the transport process. 
  • 313
  • 15 Mar 2021
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