Topic Review
The Black Madonna
The Black Madonna, with origins in Africa, is a prominent example of how African beliefs have been integrated into other faiths in ways that are often obscured from view. The Black Madonna is compared with the characteristics and symbolism of the traditional fair-skinned Virgin Mary. It is estimated that there are hundreds of depictions of the Black Madonna, yet her identity as truly black is generally minimized. This review contributes a theoretical rationale for the lack of recognition and acceptance of the Madonna as black, contextualizing this within a feminist theoretical viewpoint and analyzing the connection to African folklore and traditional religious beliefs. The theoretical framework articulated in this paper contributes an elucidation of the ways that indigenous African religions have affected other world religions. Acknowledging this influence challenges the simplistic notion of reified distinctions between Western and non-Western religions.
  • 1273
  • 01 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Cousin Marriage
A cousin marriage is a marriage where the partners are cousins (i.e. people with common grandparents or people who share other fairly recent ancestors). The practice was common in earlier times, and continues to be common in some societies today, though in some jurisdictions such marriages are prohibited. Worldwide, more than 10% of marriages are between first or second cousins. Cousin marriage is an important topic in anthropology and alliance theory. In some cultures and communities, cousin marriages are considered ideal and are actively encouraged and expected; in others, they are seen as incestuous and are subject to social stigma and taboo. Cousin marriage was historically practised by indigenous cultures in Australia, North America, South America, and Polynesia. Different religions have ranged from prohibiting up to sixth cousins from marrying (some forms of Hinduism and Catholicism) to freely allowing first cousin marriage (Protestantism, Islam and Judaism). In some jurisdictions, cousin marriage is legally prohibited, for example in China , Taiwan, North Korea, South Korea , the Philippines and 24 of the 50 United States. The laws of many jurisdictions set out the degree of consanguinity prohibited among sexual relations and marriage parties. Supporters of cousin marriage where it is banned may view the prohibition as discrimination, while opponents may appeal to moral or other arguments. Opinions vary widely as to the merits of the practice. Children of first-cousin marriages have an increased risk of autosomal recessive genetic disorders, and this risk is higher in populations that are already highly ethnically similar. Children of more distantly related cousins have less risk of these disorders, though still higher than the average population. A study indicated that between 1800 and 1965 in Iceland, more children and grandchildren were produced from marriages between third or fourth cousins (people with common great-great- or great-great-great-grandparents) than from other degrees of separation.
  • 1187
  • 13 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Implementation of Food Safety Management
The food industry’s failure in planning and designing of and in implementing a Food Safety Management System and its foundation elements leads, in most instances, to compromised food safety and subsequent foodborne illness outbreaks. This phenomenon was noticed, worldwide, for all food processors, but with a much higher incidence in the medium- and small-sized food processing plants. Our study focuses on the importance of Food Safety Management System (FSMS), Critical Control Points Hazard Analysis (HACCP) and the Prerequisite Programs (PRPs) as the foundation of HACCP, in preventing foodborne outbreaks.
  • 1088
  • 27 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Green Customer Value
Green Customer Value means the attitude of customers towards green products has effects on their green purchase intention. The green customer's perceived value, including environmental value and perceived environmental image, have significant and positive influences on attitude towards the green product. 
  • 973
  • 27 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Community-Driven Tourism Projects
Community-driven Tourism Projects (CDTPs) are initiated, operated, managed and fully controlled by the community.  The communities identify the tourism resources they have access to, and utilize them for livelihood.  The CDTPs are a platform for not just livelihood but also for poverty alleviation
  • 909
  • 27 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Social-Ecological Transformability
Transformability is increasingly promoted as a way of moving societies toward more sustainable futures in the era of the Anthropocene, mostly because the concept of resilience has fallen short in many instances where impacts on social-ecological systems are continuous, varied, and usually unknown. While such transformations can play a crucial role in improving the sustainability of social-ecological systems, they may lead to unexpected and undesirable outcomes. 
  • 909
  • 19 Nov 2020
Topic Review
BRP for Non-Residential Buildings
According to its strategic long-term vision, Europe wants to be a climate-neutral economy by 2050 and buildings represent a sector with low-cost opportunities for high-level CO2 reduction. The main challenge is to increase the renovation rate of the existing building stock, which currently is around 1.2%/year. The ALliance for Deep RENovation (ALDREN) project developed a Holistic and reliable European Voluntary Certification Scheme to trigger deep renovation of non-residential buildings. The ALDREN approach is composed by a sum of protocols and tools with the goal of encouraging property owners to undertake renovation of existing buildings using a clear, robust, and comparable method using coherent and harmonized instruments, the so called ALDREN EPC and ALDREN Building Renovation Passport for non-residential buildings.
  • 902
  • 01 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Risk Communication
Risk communication is critical to emergency management. Following the message-centered approach or risk communication, the whole communication process for public health emergency is suggested to integrate the accessibility and openness of risk information, the timing and frequency of communication, and the strategies dealing with uncertainties. Based on these principles a simplified Government–Expert–Public risk communication model can illustrate a collaborative network for effective risk communication.
  • 886
  • 30 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Overtourism
Overtourism refers to a situation where the number of tourists at a destination and the nature of the tourism industry is perceived to be diminishing the quality of life of residents, the quality of experiences of tourists, and the quality of the physical environment, including both cultural and natural heritage [1][2][3][4][5].
  • 870
  • 27 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Serendipity as a strategic advantage
Serendipity is defined as an ability to notice, evaluate, and take advantage of unexpected information for survival purposes (both natural and social). Based on this definition, Nancy K. Napier and Vuong Quan Hoang propose a framework to develop the notion of serendipity as a strategic advantage (or competitive advantage), both in practice and in research.
  • 845
  • 02 Sep 2022
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